Difference between revisions of "Great Britain Single Frankings"

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|[[File:{{PAGENAME}} 3d  QEIIR r.jpg|350px|thumb|SG S1p Scotland "blue 2B" letter]]
 
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|[[File:{{PAGENAME}} 3d  QEIIR t.jpg|350px|thumb|SG S1pa Scotland "blue RB" - placeholder]]
 
|[[File:{{PAGENAME}} 3d  QEIIR u.jpg|350px|thumb|SG S1pb Scotland "violet LB" postcard]]
 
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|[[File:{{PAGENAME}} 3d  QEIIR w.jpg|350px|thumb|SG S1pd Scotland "violet CB" - placeholder]]
 
|[[File:{{PAGENAME}} 3d  QEIIR x.jpg|350px|thumb|SG S7 Scotland CB chalky paper postcard]]
 
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Revision as of 11:47, 10 November 2019


8d rated letter of May 1948 paying 3d registered & 5d airmail to Norway.

Individual uses for GB pre-decimal stamps May 1840 – February 1972

General Introduction James Heal

Pre-decimal postage stamps and postal stationery were available at times in up to 31 different denominations from ½d to £5. Some are ubiquitous, others only had very limited use and some were only available as postal stationery; these few registered envelopes are in a separate tab and by no ways complete.

Stamps used to be issued for specific purposes and, when their need dried up, withdrawn. With the introduction of the so-called Jubilee series in 1887ff a range of stamps in most denominations up to 1/- was issued, although some only had limited individual use. Of course, they could always be used to make up other rates. This system continued for most of the definitive series issued up to and including the Machins. The series had individual values added and sometimes removed but there were still plenty of more exotic items, whose need as individual stamps was small. Most commemorative stamps issued were planned for specific needs and often fitted the occasion during the EII era. The most striking case ignoring any practical use was the 1961 CEPT group with 2d, 4d and 10d stamps, none of which paid a first step rate of any kind, neither inland nor foreign.

The use potential of lower value stamps decreased in the EII period thanks to rising prices, so it is often difficult to find these used on their own. The same rarity applies to the high values of earlier periods. I have left out the £5.

The set-up of this page is to follow the development of the issues by value, so logically in chronological order as far as possible. As commemoratives did not actually replace definitives, I have followed the lead by the SG specialized catalogues and put the definitives first and then the commems. When different usages were possible, I have tried to show these or at least leave placeholders. It automatically shows the short lifespans of some stamps, not readily seen in the normal catalogues. Most items are from my collection, my friend Olaf Groth has also contributed and in some cases I have used items from other sources (with references). There are slots still to fill for which placeholders have been included. I have sometimes included inverted and sideways watermarks as well as phosphor alternatives, although they cannot usually be seen on the scans – you will just have to take my word for it! Shades are often very subjective, so have only been included when clear. I have added a tab for plates of the 1d red. There are so many of these, some 400 in all, many of which were used with several different stamp categories. For this exercise the line-engraved penny stamps are fairly boring as their usage was almost always the same - just inland letters, first weight step.

Please feel free to add covers to illustrate usages and any missing items. Please only single usage covers with correct postage; there has to be a logical cut-off point! Underpaid items are acceptable, also if postage due markings have been applied but NOT please if postage due stamps have been added, as then no longer "single usage". Small overpayment is acceptable if it is not clearly philatelic. First Day Covers are ok if at correct rates and preferably commercial usage = not special covers with special postmarks, although these are acceptable as place holders until something better turns up! Please put your name in brackets at the end of the text so we can keep track of ownership.

Just as a reminder: QV line-engraved and embossed stamps together with most surface printed ones were valid for use until May 31st 1901, only the 1d lilac, the 8d, 2/- and £5, the 3 high values with coloured corner letters and the Jubilee series including the green £1 were valid until June 30th 1915. The 1d fiscal stamps were released for postal usage from June 1st 1881 and the other values January 1st 1883 and as far as I know valid until June 30th 1915. All Departmental Overprinted Officials were invalidated May 14th 1904. All other EVII stamps were valid until March 31st 1930 and all LSD stamps were invalidated February 29th 1972.

[edit]

The standard Stanley Gibbons Catalogue is not arranged chronologically but includes all the line-engraved stamps before the embossed ones and they before the surface-printed range. This can often give the impression that the first halfpenny “bantam” stamps were issued early on. In fact, they did not appear until 1870, 30 years after the Penny Black, after the embossed stamps and after the surface-printed range without corner letters, with small white corner letters and almost all the ones with large white corner letters! There had even been a first 5/- stamp issued before the humble halfpenny came into its own! There were about 20 different halfpenny stamps “face different”, 3 of them commemoratives. They were always in the portfolio of the post office, even after there was any real use for them. The purchasing power of the 1870 halfpenny was approximately 30p in 2019, but the nominal value is 0.6p. The coin ceased to be legal tender in 1969, whereas the stamps from GV onwards were not invalidated until 29. Feb. 1972. However, last possible usage as a single franking was 30. April 1940 (inland printed papers) or 9 years later (foreign printed papers). As a certificate of posting for unregistered items ½d was still the fee until 30. September 1957, so the only way to get the GVI orange halfpenny or any EII versions without postage due!

Queen Victoria The bantams were issued in 15 plates from 1870-1880 without 2,7,16.17 or 18. Usually printed paper rate but postcards and bookpost can be found:

SG48 plate 1
SG48 plate3
SG48 plate 3 postcard 1873
SG48 plate 4
SG48 plate 5
SG48 plate 6
SG48 plate 6 picture postcard 1900
SG48 plate 8
SG48 plate 9
SG48 plate 10
SG48 plate 11
SG48 plate 12
SG48 plate 13
SG48 plate 14
SG48 plate 15
SG48 plate 19 to USA
SG48 plate 19 bookpost to Germany
SG48 plate 20
SG48 plate 6 with postage due (Olaf)
SG48 plate 19 inland bookpost (Olaf)


There were 4 surface-printed halfpenny stamps, the 1880 green “provisional”, the same design but in blue in the 1884 “Lilac & Green” issue, then the vermilion Jubilee issue with change of colour to blue-green in 1900 to conform with UPU regulations:

SG165 pale green
SG164 deep green book post to Germany
SG187
SG187 to France
SG197 perfin with a Bickerdike cancel
SG197 to Norway
SG197 to Germany
SG197 with control N on postcard
SG197 postcard
SG197 book post to Uruguay
SG213 postcard
SG213 printed paper to Germany

Officials are to be found using all 4 surface-printed stamps:

SGO2 green Inland Revenue
SGO5 blue Inland Revenue
SGO13 vermilion Inland Revenue
File:Great Britain Single Frankings halfdO QV f.jpg
SGO32 blue green Office of Works
SGO41 vermilion Army Official
SGT1 Telegraph stamp used for book post, not really allowed!

Postal Stationery was also abundant - catalogue numbers from Collect British Postal Stationery (Huggins & Baker):

CP(=Post Office Issues - cards)2
CP3 with red cancellation
CP6 with Hoster cancellation
CP21a Die II
CP21b Die III
CP29b
CP39 outward and reply stamps, unfortinately reply unused
CPP3 Glasgow 1882 (Huggins)
CS(=Stamped to Order cards)1a
CS1a as well
CS1c
CS1c too
CS1c again
CS1c another
CS2 with experimental IIB squared circle
ES(=Stamped to Order envelopes)18a
ES28
LO34 complete Vaccination certificate din A3
WP(=Post Office issue newspaper wrapper)6 with DLR perfin
WP6 to Germany
WP15 to Germany
WP16 to Germany
WS(=Stamped to Order newspaper wrappers)4 to Germany


King Edward VII There were 4 EVII issues: Perf 14 DLR in 2 colours and from May 1911 Harrison, then in October Perf 15x14 Harrison. Harrison had mostly duller greens and the halo effect around the head but some quite striking shades: Officials – the DLR stamps were used with IR, OW, Army, Board of Education, RH and Admiralty (both overprints):

SG215 DLR dark green
SG215 DLR dark green bookpost to Germany
SG215 DLR dark green printed paper to USA with control C4 continuous Jubilee line
SG217 DLR yellowish green postmark Wales?
SG217 DLR yellowish green printed paper to Germany
SG217 DLR yellowish green newspaper to France
SG217wi DLR yellowish green with inverted watermark
SG217 DLR yellowish green Certificate of Posting with control H8
SG217a DLR yellowish green with St. Andrew's Cross horizontally
SG268 H P14 dull green
SG271 H P14 bright green (fine) to Belgium - stamp accepted on the picture side
SG267wi H P14 inverted watermark
SG267 H P14 Certificate of Posting with control A11
SG279a H 15x14 deep dull green blotchy
SG279 H 15x14 pale bluish printed paper


Officials – the DLR stamps were used with IR, OW, Army, Board of Education, RH and Admiralty (both overprints):

SGO20 IR Official form with reply and 1d IR stamp unfortunately not posted back
SGO48 Army Official

Postal Stationery seems less plentiful:

CP43
CP45(2)
EP40 so Post Office envelopes
CP50 outward
CP50 return part
EP48
ES30
ES40
WP19
WP21
WS8
WS11

King George V

Downey Heads were made with Die 1A, 1B and 2 with 3 different watermarks in their short life; there were no Somerset House printings though:

SG322 Die 1A
SG322 Die 1A printed paper inland
SG322 Die 1A printed paper to USA
SG322 Die 1A Certificate of Posting
SG322a Die 1A Perf 14 postmarked Great Yarmouth (anon)
SG324 Die 1B watermark Crown
File:Great Britain Single Frankings halfdD KGV g.jpg
SG334 Die 1B watermark Simple Cypher
SG338 Die 2 watermark Crown bluish green
SG339 Die 2 watermark Crown printed paper to Germany
SG340a Die 2 watermark Crown yellow green - no cross on crown
SG344 Die 2 watermark Simple Cypher
SG346 Die 2 watermark Multiple Cypher
SG346a Die 2 watermark Multiple Cypher inverted
SG346 Die 2 watermark Multiple Cypher underpaid paquebot so postage due 1d.
SG346 Die 2 watermark Multiple Cypher Certificate of Posting

The Royal Cypher first definitive series (Profile Head) has 18 listed shades in the 4 Kings catalogue. As SG mentions, this series should really be split into 3 with pre-war, wartime and post-war issues, due to the difficulties of replacing the German aniline dyes. Somerset House prints in 1913 can only be distinguished by stamps with control attached (B.13). The multiple cypher watermark issue originally from coils is usually seen as part of this series. The second series with the Block Cypher watermark has less shades but there are the provisional printings by Harrison in 1934 to look out for (Control U34 and V34). The photogravure issue (third series) came in 2 distinct formats:

SG351 Royal Cypher pre-war issue with control D14
SG351 Royal Cypher wartime issue with control G15
SG351 Royal Cypher post-war issue printed paper posted 1923
SG418 Block Cypher printed paper with control H27
SG418a Block Cypher with sideways watermark, printed paper
SG418 Block Cypher printed paper to Russia
SG418 Block Cypher printed paper rate allowed for a postcard to Belgium with little text
SG418 Block Cypher Certificate of Posting
SG439 Photogravure intermediate format printed paper rate
SG439 Photogravure intermediate format printed paper rate to USA and redirected.
SG439 Photogravure small format printed paper rate to Germany
SG439a Photogravure small format printed paper rate with inverted watermark

Commemoratives PUC in 1929 and Silver Jubilee with 3 types were issued:

SG434 PUC printed paper rate with typical triangular undated postmark (Glasgow)
SG434 PUC printed paper rate to Switzerland
SG434a PUC sideways watermark printed paper rate with typical triangular undated postmark (London)
SG453 Silver Jubilee Type I printed paper rate
SG453 Silver Jubilee Type I printed paper rate to Austria
SG453 Silver Jubilee Type I Certificate of Posting

Postal Stationery for this value was not so important; meters came into their own which fit in here:

CP58a FDC addressed to my grandfather, sent by my uncle
CP58b
CP59a
EP68 to Germany
ES42 light green from 1914
ES42 darker green from 1930
ES42 cut out
WP25a to Germany
WP25b perfinned BR
1922 Dundee Paid meter with BEE Lion advert
1928 Bristol Paid meter
1930 Bristol Paid meter
1931 London Paid meter
1930 A4A Universal Meter
1930 A1 Pitney Bowes Meter


King Edward VIII Only 4 normal postage stamps were issued with the head of EVIII:

SG457 printed paper FDC
SG457 printed paper FDC to Australia
SG457 printed paper to Jerusalem

King George VI Printed papers could still be sent inland for ½d until 30 April 1940, foreign printed papers until 30 April 1949. The green, pale green and pale orange definitives could also have been used on certificates of posting before the rate went up to 1d in October 1957! The single GVI commemorative was issued chronologically within the definitives, after the dark green stamp:

SG462 FDC printed paper rate with poached egg
SG462 postcard to France at printed paper rate
SG462 printed paper rate to USA
SG485 printed paper rate to Argentina
SG485 Certificate of Posting
SG485 Certificate of Posting to USA
SG485 newspaper wrapper to USA with HMSO perfin
SG479 FDC underpaid as the printed paper rate had gone up to 1d a few days earlier
SG479 unadressed cover posted in Japan on board at foreign printed paper rate

Queen Elizabeth II EII had the same problems of course, that the stamp was basically only used for make-up purposes, apart from CoP, unless of course someone tried their luck underpaying!

SG515 Tudor Crown on Certificate of Posting
SG540 Edward Crown booklet stamp underpaid 2d for inland letter rate, 4d postage due box but presumably cancelled!
SG610 Multiple Crowns, S12 two violet phosphor bands underpaid 2½d for inland printed paper rate, 5d postage due box but changed to 7d as the cover is slightly sealed so counted as a letter and therefore 3½d underpaid!

Penny – the mother of all stamps! The Penny Black – everybody has heard of it, collector or not. The first stamp ever issued in the world 06 May 1840 and a classic. Of course, it served a specific purpose, ½ ounce inland letter; 05 October 1871 increased to 1 ounce, 22 June 1897 to 4 ounces and 01 November 1915 dropped back to 1 ounce. It was always part of the range of issues, even during the reign of EVIII and up to the Machin period. Postage stamps, officials, postal fiscals, stationery, an enormous area, even excluding the multitude of plates, for which please see the next tab.


Queen Victoria There were 12 plates of Penny Blacks, well researched for decades, the colour became lighter with use mutating from an intense black through black to greyish black. Various repairs were made to the plates but that would be too specialized for a general presentation like this one. The 12 plates should be shown though. Early 1841 the first Penny Reds appeared, 7 of the original black plates were used, which have always been specifically collected. Plates 12-36 are known as the Maltese Cross range of plates with 37-45 the transitional period. Plates 37-131 are the further imperforate Penny Reds with Alphabet I, split into 7 sub-groups in the QV catalogue Plates 132-177 are the imperforate stamps with Alphabet II Archers – experimental forms of separation Officially perforated – the 10 year period from 1854 saw many changes: perforation gauge 16 then 14 because of splitting problems; introduction of Die II; change of watermark from small crown to large crown with types I & II; change from Alphabet II to III and also IV; removal of blueing from the paper; fire at Perkins Bacon; Savoy Street “emergency” printings; back to Fleet Street. The catalogue does not reflect the most up-to-date analyses by especially Mike Williams and still shows C9 and C10 whereas it is suggested that C9 better seen as pre-fire on unblued paper with orange shades, C10 to be split into Savoy Street pale shades with no orange and Fleet Street rose-red. C1 Die I, Alphabet II, Blued Paper, Wmk. Small Crown, Perf 16, Plates 155-204, R1-R6: C2 As C1 but Perf 14, Plates 194-204, R1-R6: C3 As C2 but Die II, Plates 1-21: C4 As C3 but Perf 16, Plates 1-15: C5 As C4 but Wmk. Large Crown: C6 As C5 but Perf 14, Plates 1-21: C7 As C3 but Alphabet III, Plates 22-27: C8 As C7 but Perf 14 and stronger colours, Plates 22-48: C8A As C8 but Red brown on White Paper, Plates 23-46: C9 new As C8A but orange shades, Plates…: C10 new As C9 but pale rose & rose-red shades, Plates…: C10A new As C10 but deeper shades, Plates…: C11 As 10A but Perf 16, Plates 27-60 (not all): C12 Alphabet IV, Wmk. Large Crown II (also I), Perf 14, Plates 50 & 51: C13 As C10 but Alphabet II and Wmk. Large Crown II, Plates R15 & R16 April 1864-1880 Letters in all 4 Corners, Plates 71-225 (apart from 75, 77, 126, 128) Surface Printed 1880/1881 – 3 stamps issued, Venetian Red, then Penny Lilac, first with 14 pearls, then 16 pearls, but not included in the Jubilee series. Official Stamps overprinted 1d lilac with IR, Govt. Parcels, OW and Army: Postal Fiscals – 7 different fiscal stamps with further variations in watermark, paper and design details from 1853ff were officially sanctioned to be used for postage after June 1881:

King Edward VII There were 3 EVII issues: Perf 14 DLR and from May 1911 Harrison, then from that October Perf 15x14 Harrison. Strong carmines and scarlets are typical for DLR; Harrison has softer rose-reds and rose-carmines and the halo effect around the head. Officials – the DLR stamps were used with IR, Govt. Parcels, OW, Army, Board of Education, RH and Admiralty (both overprints):

King George V Downey Heads were made with Die 1A, 1B and 2 with 3 different watermarks and by 2 printers during their short life: The Royal Cypher first definitive series has 19 listed shades in the 4 Kings catalogue. As SG mentions, this series should really be split into 3 with pre-war. War and post-war issues, due to the difficulties of replacing the German aniline dyes. The multiple cypher watermark issue originally from coils is usually seen as part of this series: The second series with the Block Cypher watermark has less shades but there is the experimental watermark from 1924 to look out for as well as the provisional printings by Harrison in 1934: Looked at chronologically both the British Empire Exhibition 1924 stamps (line and comb perforation) and the 1925 one as well as the PUC commemorative came next: The photogravure issue came in 3 distinct formats with 2 further small size deviations on the intermediate and small coil: I must admit that I have not bothered with them (yet): The Silver Jubilee in 1935 brought 3 distinct versions:

King Edward VIII Only 4 normal postage stamps were issued with the head of EVIII:

King George VI Postcards and printed papers could still be sent inland for 1d until 30 April 1940 and 30 May 1951 respectively, foreign printed papers until 30 September 1950. The scarlet and pale scarlet (including type II) issues were easy enough, but the light ultramarine version (Type II), issued 3 May 1951, is tricky. The various other types (I, Ia. Ib & Ic) were all issued after, as were the booklet panes with attached adverts. They were all still valid so could theoretically have been used on certificates of posting when the rate went up to 1d in October 1957! The 2 GVI commemoratives should really be put chronologically within the definitives, the Centenary of Postage Stamps after the scarlet and the Channel Island Liberation before the light ultramarine:

Queen Elizabeth II EII had the same problems of course, that the stamp was basically only used for make-up purposes, apart from CoP, unless of course someone tried their luck underpaying!

So as not to block the penny section with an endless display of very similar Penny Red covers, here is the place to show as many as we can find!


Queen Victoria Early 1841 the first Penny Reds appeared, 7 of the original black plates were used, which have always been specifically collected. Plates 12-36 are known as the Maltese Cross range of plates with 37-45 the transitional period. Plates 37-131 are the further imperforate Penny Reds with Alphabet I, split into 7 sub-groups in the QV catalogue Plates 132-177 are the imperforate stamps with Alphabet II Archers – experimental forms of separation Officially perforated – the 10 year period from 1854 saw many changes: perforation gauge 16 then 14 because of splitting problems; introduction of Die II; change of watermark from small crown to large crown with types I & II; change from Alphabet II to III and also IV; removal of blueing from the paper; fire at Perkins Bacon; Savoy Street “emergency” printings; back to Fleet Street. The catalogue does not reflect the most up-to-date analyses by especially Mike Williams and still shows C9 and C10 whereas it is suggested that C9 better seen as pre-fire on unblued paper with orange shades, C10 to be split into Savoy Street pale shades with no orange and Fleet Street rose-red. C1 Die I, Alphabet II, Blued Paper, Wmk. Small Crown, Perf 16, Plates 155-204, R1-R6: C2 As C1 but Perf 14, Plates 194-204, R1-R6: C3 As C2 but Die II, Plates 1-21: C4 As C3 but Perf 16, Plates 1-15: C5 As C4 but Wmk. Large Crown: C6 As C5 but Perf 14, Plates 1-21: C7 As C3 but Alphabet III, Plates 22-27: C8 As C7 but Perf 14 and stronger colours, Plates 22-48: C8A As C8 but Red brown on White Paper, Plates 23-46: C9 new As C8A but orange shades, Plates…: C10 new As C9 but pale rose & rose-red shades, Plates…: C10A new As C10 but deeper shades, Plates…: C11 As 10A but Perf 16, Plates 27-60 (not all): C12 Alphabet IV, Wmk. Large Crown II (also I), Perf 14, Plates 50 & 51: C13 As C10 but Alphabet II and Wmk. Large Crown II, Plates R15 & R16 April 1864-1880 Letters in all 4 Corners, Plates 71-225 (apart from 75, 77, 126, 128) Surface Printed 1880/1881 – 3 stamps issued, Venetian Red, then Penny Lilac, first with 14 pearls, then 16 pearls, but not included in the Jubilee series. Official Stamps overprinted 1d lilac with IR, Govt. Parcels, OW and Army: Postal Fiscals – 7 different fiscal stamps with further variations in watermark, paper and design details from 1853ff were officially sanctioned to be used for postage after June 1881:

Penny Farthing – not a stamp! The once-off 1¼d postcard was introduced on 01. July 1875 under UPU regulations at half the letter rate for postcard going abroad. Any used in 1875 are rather unusual as were postcards themselves in those early days. On April 1st 1879 the rates were changed to 1d, 1½d or 2½d but the "old" postcards could of course be used up = sender's excess!

Queen Victoria

CP5 August 1875 Inverness to Belgium
CP5 October 1875 Aberdeen to Prussia
CP5 November 1875 London to USA
CP5 February 1877 Liverpool to Germany with HRS perfin
CP5 28th February 1879 late use Sheffield to USA
CP5 May 1880 very late use with sender's excess from Eastbourne to USA

Three Halfpence rather than 1½d was the original inscription on the planned rosy mauve stamp prepared in 1860 for the planned newspaper rate which was put off. It was launched 10 years later in rose-red and has been part of all reigns since.


Queen Victoria In 1871 the weight steps for letters were adjusted upwards and the new second step <2 ounces was set at 1½d. The first 3 issued all had the rate written in letters rather than numbers which could well have been confusing for non-English speakers, but that was not a cause for concern in those days. 2 plates of the line-engraved issue are available, the first without any mention and the third with a 3 integrated in the design. Early covers are just for heavier letters or heavier printed papers. Surface-printed Venetian Red and Lilac stamps appeared in 1880 and 1884 with similar limited use. The Jubilee issue came shortly before foreign printed paper rates were set up, allowing heavier items to be sent thus. Officials were printed with Govt. Parcels overprints but unlikely to have been used individually.

King Edward VII Edward VII saw 3 issues in the same design as the Jubilee series, first ordinary, and then chalky paper from DLR then provisional printings by Somerset House. Late fee post & special registered notices added to the scarce use and officials were no longer printed.

King George V The reign of GV saw issues in all 3 definitive series (not Downey Heads) and all 3 commemorative sets. World War I saw the problems of getting the correct inks as for the lower (and higher) values – see comments at ½d as these are similar for all values. Postal rates changed quickly in those troubled times, 1½d was the inland letter rate for letters between 4 and 6 ounces until November 1915, reintroduced as the first step in June 1918 for 2 years and the again 2 years later in May 1923 for the rest of the reign. Inland Postcards could only be sent for a year at this rate from June 1921 until the end of May 1922, before being reduced to 1d. Going abroad, Empire rates applied as inland apart from the period until 1915 which had 1d steps. Postcards were ok from June 1921 until the end of the reign. It was the heyday of booklets with advertising panes and the 1½d was used a lot. Simple Cypher: Block Cypher includes the experimental watermark and the emergency issue during the 1926 General Strike: First commemoratives: Photogravure: Silver Jubilee:

1934 1½d rated letter to USA, under the rules of 1908 the USA was granted the same rate as Empire

King Edward VIII

This rate was included in the 4 stamps issued with the head of EVIII; booklet stamps with adverts were also available.

King George VI GVI saw the 3 issues of definitives and 2 commemoratives. The old postage rates applied until 1940 but after that the use was restricted to printed papers, which is why single usage items are quite scarce. The earlier booklets also used 1½d stamps with adverts. The double head for the 1940 centenary issue was issued only days after the rate increases so was basically redundant from the outset. Internal mail from soldiers within the UK could be sent for 1½d but was often charged postage due!

Queen Elizabeth II EII did not fare any better, 1956 being the latest inland printed papers could be sent at this rate. Abroad it was possible until late 1957 and reduced rate printed papers could still be sent until 1963. I would love to see some!

Twopence Blue was introduced together with the Penny Black and is certainly more attractive and scarcer but does not have the same aura as the Penny Black! It was in use as long as or rather longer than the 1d but ran out of steam in the early 1960’s.

Queen Victoria The QV line-engraved stamps are much easier to handle than their black and red counterparts. There were only 2 plates of the original design, 2 plates of the second design with added white lines as imperforate items, then 3 plates perforated with stars in the top corners and 9 with letters in all 4 corners. The switch from small to large crown and perfs 16 then 14 add spice to the area; plate 4 is available imperf and perforated too. Throughout this period until late 1871 2d was the second step postage rate, when it became the third step. 3 surface-printed issues appeared in 1880, 1884 and 1887. Single usage is normally restricted to heavier letters. The introduction of Empire rates in 1898 allowed second step letters to be posted for 2d. Single use of the one Govt. Parcels overprinted stamp was unlikely. Stationery:

King Edward VII Edward VII followed the usual pattern with 2 papers by DLR in the Jubilee design then Somerset House. Single usage mostly second step Empire rate letters. The famous Tyrian Plum was too late! Stationery:

King George V GV’s reign saw 2d being set variously as first or second step inland rate and for 2 years from June 1920 until June 1922 as the first step for Empire letters. It had continued as 2nd step until June 1918. 2d being the registration rate during the Great War, mail on active service which was sent free still required 2d registration if this service was chosen. No commemoratives with this value were issued. Royal cypher saw a deliberate change in colour early on from orange-yellow to reddish-yellow and includes the famous “intense bright orange” shade. 1921 saw a second die launched as after the rate hikes in 1920 the value was needed more and the original die was slightly too large and had caused alignment problems during perforating: Block cypher: Photogravure: Stationery:

1921 change to the Empire rate (incl. USA) to 2d


King George VI There were 3 definitives and 1 commemorative issued in GVI’s reign. 2d covered the inland and foreign postcard rates for most of the period. Due to a lack of penny stamps during the German occupation of the Channel Islands, bisects of available 2d stamps were allowed from 24 December 1940 until 22 February 1941 in Guernsey. The two stamps originally approved were the dark orange definitive and the 1940 double head. Stationery:

Queen Elizabeth II EII normal usage was until end of September 1957 on inland and foreign postcards with some printed paper possibilities. The definitives were readily available, the colour changed to a lighter shade in 1956 and one commemorative was issued in 1961 which could only be used on foreign printed papers! Stationery:

Tuppence Ha’penny: Great Britain was a founding member of the UPU in 1875 and the agreed postage rate between member states was 25 gold centimes = 2½d. It held this position until 1940 with just 2 years from summer 1921 till summer 1923 when the rate was increased to 3d. After 1940 it continued life as the Empire rate until 1957 and for Empire postcards until 1965. In 1940 it also became the inland rate until 1957 when it also took over the postcard rate until 1965. Basically, in almost continual use for 90 years and as such fairly easy to find most issues used singly on cover.

Queen Victoria Originally issued in a rosy mauve shade the first 3 plates were on Anchor watermark paper and are all known with blued paper. Plate 3 was then issued on Orb watermarked paper as were the plates up to 17. Plate 17 was also issued printed blue in 1880 on Orb watermarked paper to conform with the UPU colour guidelines as were plates 18-20. A final alteration of the first issue was the use of Crown watermarked paper for plates 21-23 in 1881. The 1884 series “lilac & green” had this value in lilac against the rules of the UPU and in a landscape format. In the Jubilee series it reverted to an upright shape and in the correct blue colour. Official overprints were of course needed for this important value, but they are very scarce on cover! Stationery was also abundant:

King Edward VII The DLR stamp for EVII was not printed on chalky paper; the provisional printings by Harrison entailed first perf 14 and then perf 15x14 only 3 months later. Officials: Stationery:

King George V The Royal Cypher series saw some extremely rare shades and an extensive range. It also included the 2 year period without a specific use for this denomination. Block cypher & Photogravure: Commemoratives were just PUC and Silver Jubilee. The PUC with inverted watermark is a much sought after stamp as is the elusive and famous Prussian Blue Silver Jubilee stamp. Stationery:

1915 2½d letter to Brasil covering the Foreign Rate surface mail per S.S. Barro steamer.

King Edward VIII The highest value stamp with the head of EVIII:

King George VI The GVI definitives were the highest value to be released in 3 colours. All commemorative issues apart from the Coronation included 2½d values. Stationery:

Queen Elizabeth II For most of the pre-decimal reign of EII this value stayed relevant. It was issued with 2 different types with the top line of the diadem only half the width of the crown in Type I. It appeared in all the various watermark and paper varieties as well as mechanisation attempts in the Wilding period apart from violet phosphor bands which started in 1965 after its useful life had passed. There was also the chalky paper issue in the panes with ½d in the holiday booklets. The value never made it into the Machin series. There were 7 commemoratives issued, including 4 early phosphor alternatives and 2 different printers for 1 issue. Regionals: Stationery:

Threepence was needed quite early on according to Patrick Hamilton (British Stamps 1948 - a useful book describing the various stamp values in similar fashion to this collection) when the basic rate to Switzerland and Belgium was halved from 6d. The 1861 versions with plate 1 & 2 were never issued but in 1862 plate 2, state 2 was issued with small corner letters. Plate 3 with dots was also never put to press but a few are known. The denomination was important on and off until decimalisation, but some issues are difficult to find. However as far as I can see, the first use of 3d going abroad was to Holland via Belgium in 1864, whereas the rate to Belgium at that time was 4d! This according to Moubray. Switzerland was later. First inland single usage was April 1865 for the third step, which was only valid at this value until 1871.

Queen Victoria

Visually the first 20 plates looked similar, from plate 4 there were large white corner letters and the plate number left and right. Plate 4 was originally issued on paper watermarked Emblems but then with watermark Spray until plate 10. During this period the 3d rate was available by 1870 to various countries.

SG76 small letters, April 1865 inland use
SG92 plate 4 issued 1865 with watermark Emblems, here 1865 to Holland (Olaf)
SG92 plate 4 issued 1865 with watermark Emblems, here January 1867 to Holland
SG102 spray plate 4, 1867 to Belgium
SG102 spray plate 4, 1867 to Holland (Olaf)
SG102 spray plate 5, 1869 to Holland (Olaf)
SG102 spray plate 5, 1870 to Germany
SG102 spray plate 5, 1870 to Switzerland from Weston-super-Mare
SG102 spray plate 6, 1871 to Switzerland
SG102 spray plate 6 marginal, 1870 to Germany (Olaf)
SG102 spray plate 7, 1872 to France
SG102 spray plate 8, 1872 to Germany
SG102 spray plate 8, 1872 inland letter over 6 ounces!? (Olaf)
SG102 spray plate 9, 1871 to Austria (Olaf)
SG102 spray plate 9, 1873 to Germany
SG102 spray plate 10, 1873 to USA
SG102 spray plate 10, 1873 to France (Olaf)
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QV r.jpg

Plate 11 saw the switchover to coloured corner letters (plate 13 not issued) and plate 20 was issued with Spray and the Crown watermarks, plate 21 just with Crown in 1881. Inland registration fees were reduced to 2d in 1878 and inland registered letters with 1d postage could be sent using these stamps from then on. UPU meant that there was no 3d rate going abroad anymore. The only use I can see in Moubray is on private ships to British West Indies until April 1879 (Belize or Trinidad) or September 1881 (other islands) before the 4d rate was required. Plate 21 in purple was overprinted with 3d in 1883 as part of the unification process but proved unsuccessful. Its main use was for the new parcel post system covering the first step under 1lb which remained unchanged until 1915.


SG143 plate 11 heavy inland letter
SG143 plate 11 to France
SG143 plate 11 to Austria (Olaf)
SG143 plate 12 to USA
SG143 plate 12 to Germany (Olaf)
SG143 plate 14 to Germany
SG143 plate 14 to Austria (Olaf)
SG143 plate 15 to France
SG143 plate 15 to Germany (Olaf)
SG143 plate 15 to Denmark (Olaf)
SG143 plate 16 to Austria
SG143 plate 17 to Switzerland
SG143 plate 17 to France (Olaf)
SG143 plate 18 to France
SG143 plate 18 to Austria (Olaf)
SG143 plate 19, 1879 registered inland letter
SG143 plate 20, 1880 registered inland letter
SG158 plate 20, registered inland letter)
SG158 watermark Crown plate 21 registered inland letter
SG159 3d on 3d, 1883 to USA, should be 2½d UPU rate
SG159 3d on 3d, 1883 to Germany, should be 2½d UPU rate (Olaf)
SG159 3d on 3d, PP label September 1883


The lilac version succeeded it in 1884 and the purple on yellow (or orange) in the Jubilee series a few years later. Juror's citations and objections of notice were more frequent now being sent registered, although earlier items are known but scarcer.


SG191 inland OHMS registered letter from the sheriff's clerk
SG191 inland registered juror's citation
SG191 inland registered notice of objection
SG191 part PP label
SG202 Jubilee white PP label
SG202 Jubilee blue PP label
SG202 Jubilee registered juror's citation
SG202 Jubilee registered parliamentary notice
SG202 Jubilee to Germany, should be 2½d UPU rate
SG202 Jubilee registered inland letter
SG202 Jubilee pre-printed registered inland letter with red bars, blue crayon on top
SG202 Jubilee pre-printed registered inland letter with blue bars (Olaf)

No official overprints were made but postal fiscal use of Inland Revenue 3d stamps with various watermarks was allowed. Stationery included the British Empire postcard for use to Australia, New Zealand and Fiji, but also used mostly philatelically as registered cards to Europe.


File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QV3 a.jpg
SG_F10/13/16 perf 15½ x 15 - placeholder
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QV3 b.jpg
SG_F24/26 perf 14 - placeholder
SG_F29 code C - used as inland registered cover (not mine but not sure who was selling it!)
CP25, used correctly to Australia
CP25, used correctly to New Zealand
CP25, used semi-correctly registered to Germany
ES3 to Denmark
ES3 to Germany
ES22b inland registered use


King Edward VII During the reign of EVII 4 different stamps were issued similar to the Jubilee one. DLR with ordinary and chalk paper, Harrisons with perf 14 and one week later perf 15x14. Perf 14 is of course suitably scarce!

SG232 DLR ordinary paper, typical registered cover
SG232 DLR ordinary paper, PP label
SG232 DLR ordinary paper, overpaid postcard to Switzerland
SG232a DLR chalky paper, typical registered cover
SG232a DLR chalky paper, registered cover to USA at Empire rate
SG232a DLR chalky paper, parcel post to Germany
SG277 Harrison perf 14, registered cover to USA from Scilly!
SG285 Harrison perf 15x14, registered cover to USA

Stationery:

ES35 inland registered
RP24F inland usage
RP24F Empire rate from Weston-super-Mare to India
RP24G inland usage
RP26F inland usage


King George V No 3d commemoratives were printed in the reign of GV.

The violet of the Royal Cypher issue varied considerably in shade. During this period there were 2 distinct rate changes. Inland or foreign (Empire rate) registered letters could be sent at the 2d registration fee rate until mid 1918; after that only quite heavy letters would have met the weight requirements. Foreign letters (not Empire) could be sent from June 1921 until May 1923 for 3d and the second step for Empire letters was valid fro, June 1922 until May 1923. Airmail to Europe at 2d on some routes from mid 1920 matched the brief postcard rate of 1d until mid 1921.

SG375 Royal Cypher 1914 inland registered letter
SG375 Royal Cypher with F15 Control 1916 inland registered letter
SG375 Royal Cypher very pale violet 1916 inland express (3d) letter sent locally - the staple holes may mean that some form of payment was attached originally
SG375 Royal Cypher (frame break top left above scroll) 1914 registered letter to Canada
SG375 Royal Cypher 1917 registered letter to USA at Empire rate
SG375 Royal Cypher 1913 registered sample (1d) to Germany
SG375 Royal Cypher 1920 airmail (2d) postcard (1d) to Belgium
SG375 Royal Cypher 1921 new surface rate to Switzerland
SG375 Royal Cypher 1921 new surface rate to Austria
SG375 Royal Cypher 1921 new surface rate to Sweden (wing48us)
SG375 Royal Cypher 1922 new surface rate to France
SG375 Royal Cypher very deep violet 1922 new surface rate to Denmark
SG375 Royal Cypher 1922 new surface rate to Germany
SG375 Royal Cypher 1922 stuck together postcard treated as a letter at the new surface rate to Germany
SG375 Royal Cypher overprinted as Levant C44a postcard 1922 from BPO Constantinople to Greece

Block Cypher was a difficult period but after the 1931 change in the way airmail fees were calculated there were some postcard rates to Northern Africa, Asia and Australia; letters possible to Northern Africa and into the Arabic areas. Advice of Delivery forms (inland) and postcards (foreign) had been possible since 1921.

SG423 Block Cypher 08 August 1932 introduction of 3d airmail postcard rate to Iraq sent in August
SG423 Block Cypher November 1934 introduction of reduced 3d airmail rate to Persia, sent 1937
SG423 Block Cypher 1932 registered (3d) OHMS inland parcel sent with free postage
SG423 Block Cypher 1932 inland advice of delivery
SG423 Block Cypher 1937 advice of delivery postcard for a foreign item

Photogravure was an even more difficult period! The Australian rates had been changed by then.

SG444 Photogravure 1936 airmail to Persia (StampsPlus)
SG444 Photogravure 1936 airmail & paquebot from Egypt to England
SG444 Photogravure 1937 airmail (crossed out) postcard from BPO Constantinople to Germany
SG444 Photogravure 1935 inland advice of delivery
SG444 Photogravure 1935 advice of delivery postcard for a foreign item

Stationery

ES47 letter to Germany 1923
RP28Fa 1917 inland registered cover


King George VI

The stamp was not part of the EVIII portfolio. GVI only saw 2 definitives as the value was not included in the 1950 issue.

SG467 dark 1938 airmail to Iran
SG467 dark 1941 letter card airmail from Egypt to South Africa
SG467 dark 1941 registered (3d) OHMS parcel label (free) from FPO4 to Egypt
SG490 light 1949 inland letter 2-4 ounces
SG490 light 1949 surface mail to Germany
SG490 light Control K42 1942 airletter FPO282 to South Africa
SG490 light 1946 airletter Egypt to England
SG490 light December 1948 to Italy at in July 1948 restored air/all-up rate
SG490 light December 1949 to Germany at in June 1949 restored air/all-up rate
SG490 light 1944 registered (3d) cover on active service (free) from FPO 109 to USA
SG490 light 1946 registered (3d) cover on active service (free) from FPO 856 to England
SG490 light 1952 inland advice of delivery
SG490(Q17a) light, overprinted as Tangier T263 but with white streak in hair, airmail postcard to Sweden
SG_J8 Jersey local overpaid printed paper FDC


4 commemorative series included the 3d value:

SG484 Centenerary August 1940 surface mail to Switzerland
SG492 Victory July 1946 to Denmark
SG492 Victory (shiny ink) November 1946 to Switzerland
SG492a Victory 7 berries July 1946 inland letter overpaid ½d (ChrisJ.Record)
SG496 Olympics 1948 to Germany
SG496 overprinted as Tangier T258 Olympics BPO to Switzerland
SG520 UPU 10.10.49 FDC to Germany
SG520 UPU November 1949 airmail to Switzerland
SG520 UPU November 1949 FPO656 to England

Stationery:

ES71 used late in 1957 inland 1 day after the change in rates
RPF3a 1946 inland registered cover
RPF4 1945 reistered cover from FPO to England (Huggins)
1940 LM&S railway stamp letter (Downland2)

Queen Elizabeth II

All the Wilding variations were used on the 3d value, despite there not being any real use for it as a single use stamp until late 1957 when it was introduced as the new inland and Empire postage rate. Previously it was needed for second step letters and it was also required for second class airmail newspapers in zone A but only for ½ ounce so unlikely! In May 1965 the rates were changed; inland letters no longer possible but inland or Empire postcards and inland printed paper were now viable until the launch of 2-tier postage in 1968. I have noted several items going abroad underpaid which have not been picked up for postage due.

Definitives, Wildings and Machins:

SG520 Tudor Crown 1954 second step inland letter
SG545 St. Edward's Crown airletter from FPO256
SG545 St. Edward's Crown advice of delivery for a foreign registered letter to Austria
SG545 St. Edward's Crown overprinted as Bahrain B108 postcard to England
SG566 St. Edward's Crown with graphite lines on inland letter
SG575 muliple crowns - cream, inland letter from House of Commons
SG575 muliple crowns - cream, underpaid letter to Germany
SG575 muliple crowns - cream, underpaid postcard to Germany
SG575 muliple crowns - cream, FPO to England
SG575 muliple crowns - cream, FPO within Germany
SG575 muliple crowns - cream, advice of delivery for an inland registered letter
SG575a muliple crowns - cream, sideways watermark on inland letter
SG575 muliple crowns - whiter, inland letter from House of Commons
SG575 muliple crowns - whiter, FPO within Germany
SG592 muliple crowns with graphite lines on inland letter
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEII p.jpg
SG607 phosphor-graphite - placeholder
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEII q.jpg
SG615 phosphor "green" - placeholder
SG615 phosphor "blue 2B" - cream, inland letter
SG615 phosphor "blue 2B" - whiter, paquebot to USA
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEII t.jpg
SG615 phosphor "blue LB" - placeholder
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEII u.jpg
SG615 phosphor "blue RB" - placeholder
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEII v.jpg
SG615c phosphor "violet LB" - placeholder
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEII w.jpg
SG615c phosphor "violet RB" - placeholder
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEII x.jpg
SG615e phosphor "violet CB" - placeholder
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEII y.jpg
SG615b phosphor "violet 2B" - placeholder
SG729 Machin head A, CB inland printed paper
SG729 Machin head B, CB inland postcard
SG730 Machin head A, 2B BFPO German inland printed paper
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEII e1.jpg
SG730 Machin head B, 2B - placeholder

Regionals – this was the first value to be issued for the 4 main regions, best collected with "native" postmarks:

SG G7 Guernsey cream paper - inland letter as placeholder with Herm stamps on reverse
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIR b.jpg
SG G7 Guernsey whiter paper - placeholder
SG G7p Guernsey CB postcard
SG G7p Guernsey CB inland letter
SG I2 Isle of Man cream paper postcard
SG I2 Isle of Man whiter paper letter
SG I2a Isle of Man chalky paper letter
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIR h.jpg
SG I2p Isle of Man CB - placeholder
SG J10 Jersey cream paper letter
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIR j.jpg
SG J10 Jersey whiter paper - placeholder
SG J10p Jersey CB postcard
SG NI1 Northern Ireland cream paper inland letter
SG NI1 Northern Ireland cream paper FDC to Canada
SG NI1 Northern Ireland whiter paper inland letter
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIR o.jpg
SG NI1p Northern Ireland CB - placeholder
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIR p.jpg
SG S1 Scotland cream paper - placeholder
SG S1 Scotland whiter paper postcard
SG S1p Scotland "blue 2B" letter
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIR s.jpg
SG S1pb Scotland "blue LB" - placeholder
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIR t.jpg
SG S1pa Scotland "blue RB" - placeholder
SG S1pb Scotland "violet LB" postcard
SG S1pa Scotland "violet RB" postcard
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIR w.jpg
SG S1pd Scotland "violet CB" - placeholder
SG S7 Scotland CB chalky paper postcard
SG W1 Wales cream paper postcard
SG W1 Wales whiter paper letter
SG W7 Wales CB chalky paper letter

Many commemorative sets from 1958 on included the 3d value.

Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC a.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC b.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC c.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC d.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC e.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC f.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC g.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC h.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC i.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC j.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC k.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC l.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC m.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC n.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC o.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC p.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC q.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC s.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC t.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC v.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC x.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC y.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC z.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC a1.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC c1.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC d1.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC e1.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC f1.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC h1.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC i1.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC j1.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC k1.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIC n1.jpg

Stationery:

Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIS a.jpg
Great Britain Single Frankings 3d QEIIS b.jpg

Fourpence was the first surface printed stamp back in 1855 needed when the rate to France dropped from 10d. It was also used for inland letters under 2 ounces until October 1871, after which it was only for much heavier & unusual letters. The value has been used widely since (probably the value with the most different stamps altogether?) and was useful for integrated special services.

Queen Victoria

The first issue without corner letters by DLR is quite complex, using three different Garter watermarks almost concurrently, different papers (blued, glazed, white, thick and thin) and inks with various shades of carmines and pinks.

SG62 small garter wing margin February 1856 to France
SG62 small garter used inland (Olaf)
SG63 medium garter highly glazed paper August 1856 to France
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QV d.jpg
SG64 medium garter ordinary paper, carmine - placeholder
SG65 medium garter ordinary paper, rose January 1857 to France
SG65 medium garter ordinary paper, deep rose wing margin September 1857 to France
SG66 large garter May 1861 to France
SG66 large garter September 1861 used inland
SG66 large garter wing margin Christmas Day 1861 from Weston-super-Mare to France

Followed by 2 plates with small corner letters. Large white corner letters followed on plates 7-14 with the phenomenon that plates 10 & 11 were printed with inverted watermarks, 8,9 & 12 known both upright and inverted.

SG79 small letters bright red, plate 3, May 1862 to France
SG80 (Malta Z48) small letters pale red, plate 3, January 1864 from Malta to Tunisia
SG82 small letters pale red, plate 4 (hairlines), November 1864 to France
SG93 large white letters dull vermilion, plate 7, November 1865 to France
SG93 large white letters dull vermilion, plate 7, October 1867 to France and triple 49 postmark
SG93 large white letters dull vermilion, plate 8, August 1866, private ship rate to Norway and twin 46 postmark
SG93 large white letters dull vermilion, plate 8, January 1867, Weston-super-Mare to France
SG94 large white letters deep vermilion, plate 9, August 1867 to France
SG93 large white letters dull vermilion, plate 10, October 1868 to France
SG94 large white letters vermilion, plate 11, December 1869 to France
SG94 large white letters deep vermilion, plate 12, June 1871 via Belgium to Denmark
SG94 (Malta Z49) large white letters vermilion, plate 13, June 1873 from Malta to Italy
SG94 large white letters vermilion, plate 14, September 1875 to the unified Kingdom of Sardinia and Italy (GPU rate)
SG94 large white letters vermilion, plate 14, July 1875 to France at new 3d rate with late fee 1d (Olaf)

Plate 15 was then with coloured corner letters. 1877 saw a change in colour to sage green and 2 plates, 1880 the change to grey-brown on plate 17 in August and a change in watermark to Crown a few months later in December. Plate 18 followed in 1882. During this period the 4d rate was available to more parts of the world with and without GPU/UPU status.

SG152 coloured corner letters, plate 15, October 1876 via Marseilles to Tunisia (Olaf)
SG152 (Porto Rico Z7)coloured corner letters, plate 15, January 1877 to St. Thomas
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QV2 c.jpg
SG153 sage green plate 15 - placeholder
SG153 sage green plate 16, September 1879 to Argentina
SG153 sage green plate 16, September 1879 to Mexico (Olaf)
SG154 grey brown - large garter plate 17, January 1881 to Argentina
SG160 grey brown - Crown plate 17, March 1881 to Argentina
SG160 grey brown - Crown plate 17, June 1881 to Brazil
SG160 grey brown - Crown plate 18, July 1883 to Jamaica
SG160 grey brown - Crown plate 18, November 1883 to British Guiana - UPU (Olaf)
Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QV2 k.jpg

A new design followed in the lilac & green series and then a bi-coloured Jubilee issue which could also be used for inland express post. Officials and postal fiscals were not available, stationery is just the envelope:

SG192 green June 1884 to Mexico - UPU
SG192 green June 1886 to Puerto Rico - UPU
SG192 green June 1886 to Argentina - UPU (Olaf)
SG205 Jubilee 1889 to Australia, should be 6d
SG205 Jubilee 1891 to Cuba -UPU
SG205 Jubilee to Mauritius 1887 -UPU (Bygones of Bridlington)
SG205 (Z24) Jubilee local registered (2d) FPO cover in South Africa, presumably free postage
SG205 (K33d) Jubilee with 3 of the number 4 having white centres, 1901 inland (1d) express (3d) cover
SG205 Jubilee PP blue label 1899 <2lbs
SG205 Jubilee PP label 1901 <2lbs
ES4, 1894 cover to Germany


King Edward VII

As usual EVII followed the path of the Jubilee issue with ordinary and chalk paper versions but in 1909 the stamp reverted to mono-colour with the orange issues, followed by Harrison perf 14 and perf 15x14. Empire letters at 1d or 2d could be combined with express or registered fees and the reduction in the second step from 2½d to 1½d on foreign letters in 1907 allowed a much wider use.


SG236 DLR ordinary paper 1903 inland (1d) express (3d) letter
SG236 DLR ordinary paper 1904 PP label <2lbs
SG236a DLR chalky paper 1906 inland (1d) express (3d) letter
SG236a DLR chalky paper 1909 to Germany
SG236a DLR chalky paper 1909 to Czechoslovakia
SG236a DLR chalky paper 1909 registered (2d) Empire rate (2d) to USA
SG236a DLR chalky paper 1907 PP label <2lbs
SG240 DLR orange 1910 inland (1d) express (3d) letter
SG240 DLR orange 1910 to Portugal
SG240 DLR orange 1911 registered (2d) Empire rate (2d) to USA
SG240 DLR orange 1911 PP label <2lbs
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d KEVII l.jpg
SG278 Harrison P14 - placeholder for letter
SG278 Harrison P14 1911 PP label <2lbs
SG286 Harrison P15x14 inland (1d) express (3d) letter
SG286 Harrison P15x14 1912 to Germany
SG286 Harrison P15x14 bright orange 1912 registered (2d) Empire rate (2d) to USA
SG286 Harrison P15x14 1912 deep orange registered (2d) Empire rate (2d) to USA
SG286 Harrison P15x14 1912 PP label <2lbs
Great Britain Single Frankings 4d KEVII s.jpg
ES36, 1903 registered (2d) Empire rate (2d) to Canada
1902 LNW Railway letter

King George V

During the later part of the Royal Cypher period the registration fees were increased to 3d, making it less common for this value; express fees doubled so no longer possible and from summer 1921 till summer 1923 the foreign rates were all increased to make them impossible. The inland rate of 1d which had been valid since 1840 was removed in 1918.


SG378 Royal Cypher, 1913 registered (2d) Empire rate (2d) cover to Australia
SG378 Royal Cypher, 1921 registered (2d) Empire rate (2d) cover to USA
SG378 Royal Cypher, 1914 telephone receipt
SG378 Royal Cypher, 1917 express (3d) inland (1d) letter
SG378 Royal Cypher, 1919 express (3d) inland (1½d) letter, underpaid!
SG378 Royal Cypher, 1923 registered (now 3d) book post (1d) to Switzerland
SG378 Royal Cypher, 1934 late use control C13, airmail to Italy

The Block Cypher period had second step foreign rates of 4d again and after the start of airmail in 1919 finally brought a 4d letter rate to Europe in 1930. After early 1931 international air fees became inclusive and there are a few possibilities of finding postcards and printed papers at 4d rates to parts of Africa. I am still looking! Photogravure was just one size; commemoratives were not issued, and stationery limited:

SG424 Block Cypher, 1930 first day of new airmail 4d rate to Europe, here Russia
SG424 Block Cypher, 1935 airmail to Holland
SG424 Block Cypher, 1937 airmail to Germany
SG445 photogravure 1936 airmail to Germany
SG445 photogravure 1936 airmail to Switzerland
SG445 photogravure 1966 late use inland cover
SG445 photogravure HMSO PP label
RP30Fb from Weston-super-Mare

King George VI

No 4d stamp was issued under EVIII and the first GVI issue did not appear until the end of 1938. A second version in light ultramarine appeared in 1950 when the first step abroad was increased to 4d and the Festival of Britain had the only commemorative of that reign.


SG468 grey-green, 1944 airmail postcard to Sweden
SG468 grey-green, 1954 cover to Germany
SG468 grey-green as Morocco Z184, 1941 from BPO Tangier airmail to England
SG468 grey-green, control E39, undated postcard from Edinburgh Postal Training School!
SG508 light ultramarine, 1950 FDC to South Africa but at foreign rate
SG508 light ultramarine, 1951 to Germany
SG508 light ultramarine, 1951 to GDR, cancelled on arrival
SG508 light ultramarine, 1951 to Denmark
SG514 Festival of Britain commemorative, 1951 to Germany
Great Britain Single Frankings 4d KGVI j.jpg
ES72, 1955 to Holland

Queen Elizabeth II

Throughout the pre-decimal period 4d was always needed, for foreign letters, late 1957 for foreign postcards and from 1965 inland & Empire rate letters. Apart from the first graphite-lined series it appeared in all the Wilding experimental printings and had a change in colour to a deeper shade in 1965. The Machin issues in “black” and then red were needed for the second-class inland postage introduced in 1968 and came in various combinations of phosphor bars, heads and gum.

SG521 Tudor Crown, 1954 to Switzerland
SG546 St Edward's Crown, 1956 to Germany
SG546 St Edward's Crown, 1957 last day of 4d postage, to Switzerland
SG546 St Edward's Crown, 1958 postcard to Germany
SG576 Muliple Crowns cream paper, 1960 postcard to Germany
SG576 Muliple Crowns whiter paper, 1963 postcard to Germany, House of Commons cancellation
SG576a Muliple Crowns deep ultramarine, 1967 scarce advertising cover from Weston-super-Mare
SG593 graphite lines, 1960 postcard to USA at foreign rate as Empire rates no longer valid for USA
SG593 graphite lines, 1960 postcard to Holland, with London Airport cancellation
SG608 phosphor-graphite, 1960 paquebot postcard to England
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QEII k.jpg
SG616 phosphor "green" - placeholder
SG616 phosphor "blue" cream paper on 1965 inland cover
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QEII m.jpg
SG616 phosphor "blue" whiter paper - placeholder
SG616 phosphor "violet 8mm" on 1966 inland cover
SG616a phosphor "violet 9.5mm" deep ultramarine on 1967 inland cover
SG731 Machin deep sepia, GA on 1967 inland cover
SG731 Machin Eav - Head A booklet stamp on 1968 inland cover
SG731 Machin Eav - Head B on 1968 cover to USA
SG731 Machin Eav - Head B on 1969 inland postcard
SG732 Machin (CB) - Head A on 1968 cover to Germany
SG732 Machin (CB) - Head B on 1969 inland cover
SG UB13 Machin advert left-side on 1968 inland cover
SG733 Machin vermilion - Head B on inland cover
SG733 Machin vermilion - Head B on inland postcard
SG733 Machin vermilion - Head B on German local FPO 14 cover
SG733 U14b Machin vermilion - uncoated paper on 1970 inland postcard
SG733 Eg Machin vermilion - Head A booklet stamp on 1969 inland cover from House of Lords
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QEII b1.jpg
SG734 Machin vermilion (LB) - placeholder
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QEII c1.jpg
SG734 Eg Machin vermilion (RB) - placeholder
SG UB18 Machin advert left-side on 1969 inland cover
SG UB18 Machin advert right-side on 1969 inland cover
SG521 overprinted as Morocco 106 used 1955 on inland cover

Regional values were issued in all 6 regions and various combinations:

G8 Guernsey ultramarine 1967 cover
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QEIIR b.jpg
G8p Guernsey ultramarine - placeholder
G9 Guernsey pale ultramarine, chalky paper 1969 cover
G10 Guernsey olive-sepia 1969 cover
G11 Guernsey bright vermilion 1969 postcard
I3 Isle of Man ultramarine 1966 postcard to USA
I3p Isle of Man ultramarine 1968 cover
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QEIIR h.jpg
I4 Isle of Man blue chalky paper - placeholder
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QEIIR i.jpg
I5 Isle of Man olive-sepia - placeholder
I6 Isle of Man bright vermilion 1969 postcard
J11 Jersey ultramarine 1966 cover
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QEIIR l.jpg
J11p Jersey ultramarine - placeholder
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QEIIR m.jpg
J12 Jersey olive-sepia - placeholder
J13 Jersey bright vermilion 1969 cover
NI12 Northern Ireland ultramarine 1967 cover
NI12p Northern Ireland ultramarine 1968 cover
NI12p Northern Ireland ultramarine 1968 postcard
NI17 Northern Ireland ultramarine chalky paper 1968 cover
NI18 Northern Ireland olive-sepia on cover
NI19 Northern Ireland bright vermilion on 1969 cover
S2 Scotland ultramarine 1967 cover
S2 Scotland ultramarine 1966 postcard to France
S2 Scotland ultramarine printed paper rate to Germany
S2p Scotland ultramarine 1966 cover
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QEIIR y.jpg
S8 Scotland ultramarine chalky paper - placeholder
S9 Scotland olive-sepia 1968 printed paper rate to Arabian Gulf
S10 Scotland bright vermilion 1969 postcard
S10 Scotland 1970 cover
W2 Wales ultramarine 1966 cover
W2p Wales ultramarine 1968 cover
W8 Wales ultramarine chalky paper 1968 cover
W9 Wales olive-sepia 1969 cover
W10 Wales bright vermilion 1969 cover

Commemoratives abound including the afterthought for the 1957 Parliamentary Union Conference and the “England Winners” overprint on the 1966 World Cup issue (which is difficult to find commercially used). With nearly 100 available I have broken the group into 3 manageable ones! First up to and including 1965 (the Churchill issue was the first after the 1965 rate increase, making inland covers easier to find)


SG533 Coronation 1953 cover to Germany
SG558 Scouts 1957 cover to Switzerland
SG558 Scouts 1957 cover to USA
SG560 Parliamentary Conference 1957 cover to Norway
SG560 Parliamentary Conference 1957 postcard to Germany
SG560 Parliamentary Conference 1957 cover to Austria
SG627 CEPT 1962 postcard to Austria
SG640 Lifeboat 1963 postcard to GDR
SG640 Lifeboat 1963 inland cover
SG652 Geographic 1964 postcard to Germany
SG661 Churchill - Rembrandt print, 1965 inland cover
SG661 Churchill - Rembrandt print, 1965 postcard to Germany
SG661p Churchill - Rembrandt print, 1965 inland cover
SG661a Churchill - Timson print, 1965 postcard to Finland
SG661a Churchill - Timson print, 1965 inland cover
SG667 Lister, 1965 inland cover
SG667 Lister, 1965 postcard to Germany
SG667p Lister, 1965 inland cover
SG671 BoB Spitfires 1965 inland cover
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QEIIC t.jpg
SG671p BoB Spitfires - placeholder
SG672 BoB Hurricane 1965 inland cover
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QEIIC v.jpg
SG672p BoB Hurricane - placeholder
SG673 BoB Spitfire & Messerschmidt 1965 inland cover
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QEIIC x.jpg
SG673p BoB Spitfire & Messerschmidt - placeholder
SG674 BoB Spitfire & Heinkel 1965 postcard to Finland
SG674 BoB Spitfire & Heinkel 1965 inland cover
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QEIIC z.jpg
SG674p BoB Spitfire & Heinkel - placeholder
SG675 BoB Spitfire & Stukas 1965 inland cover
SG675 BoB Spitfire & Stukas 1965 postcard to Finland
SG675p BoB Spitfire & Stukas 1965 printed paper to Germany
SG676 BoB Hurricane& & Dornier 1965 inland cover
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4d QEIIC e1.jpg
SG676p BoB Hurricane& & Dornier - placeholder

1966 only had 7 issues but followed the tradition of 1965 with 2 multiple 4d issues.


SG685 Burns inland FDC
SG685p Burns inland cover
SG689 Landscapes inland FDC
SG689p Landscapes inland cover
SG693 World Cup inland letter
SG693 World Cup special cancel
SG693p World Cup postcard to Germany
SG696 Birds gull inland letter
SG696d Birds gull - missing green - inland letter
SG696p Birds gull inland FDC
SG697 Birds blue tit inland pre-release letter
SG697 Birds blue tit inland FDC
SG697p Birds blue tit inland FDC
SG698 Birds robin inland pre-release letter
SG698 Birds robin inland pre-release letter with date biroed out
SG698 Birds robin inland letter
SG698 Birds robin postcard to Germany
SG698 Birds robin FPO 909 letter to England
SG698p Birds robin inland FDC
SG699 Birds blackbird inland letter
SG699 Birds blackbird postcard to Germany
SG699p Birds blackbird inland FDC
SG700 England Winners! inland letter
SG701 Technology inland FDC
SG701p Technology inland letter
SG705 Hastings inland letter
SG705p Hastings inland FDC
SG706 Hastings printed paper to Germany
SG707 Hastings inland letter
SG708p Hastings inland FDC
SG709 Hastings inland letter
SG710 Hastings inland letter

From 1967 things quietened down again and two-tier postage relegated this value to second class status. After the last of the 4 multiple issue 4d stamps all issues only came with phosphor bars as the whole country required them by 1968. After the introduction of first and second class mail, the value was only used for the Christmas stamps.


SG717 Wild flowers inland FDC
SG717p Wild flowers inland letter
SG718 Wild flowers inland FDC
SG718p Wild flowers inland letter
SG719 Wild flowers printed paper rate
SG719p Wild flowers inland letter
SG720 Wild flowers inland letter
SG720p Wild flowers inland FDC
SG748 Paintings inland FDC
SG748 Paintings paquebot cover from Senegal to England
SG752 Discovery inland letter
SG752 Discovery paquebot cover from Japan to England
SG752 Discovery FPO 414 German inland letter
SG757 Christmas inland FDC
SG757 Christmas FPO 944 cover from Cyprus to Malta
SG763 Bridges inland letter
SG763 Bridges inland letter, Houses of Commons postmark
SG767 Anniversaries TUC inland cover
SG771 Paintings inland cover
SG775 Christmas reply card from Austria to England
SG784 Concorde inland cover
SG812 Christmas 1969 paid only surface printed paper rate to Germany to catch flight to New York
SG812_W175b Christmas 1969 CB3.5mm inland second class letter
SG838 Christmas 1970 maritime mail to England
SG838 Christmas 1970 inland second class letter


Stationery was available and I enclose an example of meter mail:

CSP230 1971 BFPS
CSP235 double card 1970 outward
CSP235 double card 1970 returned from FPO914
ES89 1966
ES94 1970
LCP26 1968
Meter Mail 1966

Attractive but short lived as a stamp, longer as a registered envelope!

Queen Victoria Parcel Post only started in 1883 and in 1886 the rates were changed, so that 4½d was needed for a parcel between 1lb and 2lbs, a common usage. To avoid the need for 2 stamps it was decided to add this denomination to the “Jubilee” series, and it appeared in September 1892. 5 years later the parcel post rates were changed again, and its use was reduced, so the stamp was discontinued before the end of the reign. The stamp was still useful as it could be used for registered letters going abroad. Official parcels in the 1-2lbs weight band were also quite usual so the stamp was also issued with a Government Parcels overprint.

SG206 registered (2d) to USA (2½d)
SG206 registered (2d) to France (2½d)
SG206 registered (2d)with "Leeds 2d" cancel to Germany (2½d)
SG206_K34d with frame damage below SE value tablet, registered (2d) to USA (2½d)
SG206 Illustrated London News to USA, 16-18 ounces at Foreign Commercial Papers rate
SG206 registered (2d) to North China (2½d) (Olaf)
SG206 PP label <2lbs
SG206a - deep bright carmine - PP label <2lbs


King George V From the early 20’s until 1940 the registration fee was stable at 3d as was the inland & Empire postage rate at 1½d. GV and GVI registered covers were issued, 9 distinct GV design & text changes and 5x GVI with up to 5 formats each time!

RP39F
RP39G
RP45F to USA

King George VI From the early 20’s until 1940 the registration fee was stable at 3d as was the inland & Empire postage rate at 1½d. GV and GVI registered covers were issued, 9 distinct GV design & text changes and 5x GVI with up to 5 formats each time!

RP47F
RP47G

Queen Elizabeth II October 1957 the inland and Empire letter postage for items under 2 ounces was increased to 4½d and a stamp in this denomination was thought to be needed; it was duly launched in February 1959. It became redundant in 1965 and was not used very much on its own during its lifespan. The definitive stamp came with cream and white paper, with graphite lines, with phosphor-graphite and with blue phosphor in that busy experimental period. Just one commemorative made it, the beautiful National Nature Week.

SG577 mutiple crowns cream paper, inland FDC second step
SG577 mutiple crowns cream paper, FDC to New Zealand second step
SG577 mutiple crowns whiter paper, second step
SG577 mutiple crowns whiter paper, large cover, second step
SG577 mutiple crowns whiter paper, April 1971 Forces airmail from Cyprus to UK at correct 2p decimal rate
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4half QEII f.jpg
SG594 graphite lines - placeholder
SG609 phosphor-graphite, 1960 inland second step letter
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 4half QEII h.jpg
SG616b phosphor, cream paper - placeholder
SG616b phosphor, whiter paper, 1968 inland letter ½d under- or overpaid, depending on whether 1st or 2nd class!
SG638, 1963 postcard to Germany - correct rate 4d.
SG638, 1963 paquebot to Holland - correct rate 4d.
SG638p phosphor,1963 inland second step letter.

A later addition to the Victorian range of stamps, introduced 1881 when the rates to China and India were reduced to this level. In continual use since apart from EVIII and became best known to the general public as first class postage in 1968.

Queen Victoria There were 3 very different QV versions, first the indigo stamp, then in the dull green series and later in the Jubilee range, here with 2 different dies.

SG169, 1886 to India
SG169, 1884 to Spain (UPU third step >½ounce before )
SG193, 1884 to Spain ditto
SG207, Die I, 1896 to Persia (UPU second step)
SG207a, Die II, 1902 to Germany
SG207a, Die II, 1894 registered (2d) to Austria (2½d), overpaid ½d
SG207a, Die II, 1899 PP label <3lbs
SG207a, Die II, 1899 Certificate of Posting - foreign parcel!
stampless PP label 1900 with special Bristol PP 5d cancellation

King Edward VII EVII saw the usual ordinary and chalk papers from DLR then switch to Somerset House. Single usage after the change of second step rate abroad late 1907 became much more difficult.

SG242 DLR ordinary paper, 1904 to Germany
SG242 DLR ordinary paper, 1904 to USA
SG242 DLR ordinary paper, PP label 1906 <3lbs
SG242 DLR ordinary paper, PP label 1904 registered (2d), postage (3d) <1lb
SG242 DLR ordinary paper, PP label 1907 <2lbs
SG244 DLR chalky paper, 1906 to Germany
SG244 DLR chalky paper, 1907 to Switzerland before the change in rates
SG244 DLR chalky paper, 1910 registered (2d) to New Zealand (3d = 3x1d) in new rate period which was unchanged for Empire rates.
SG244 DLR chalky paper, 1906 PP label <3lbs
SG244 DLR chalky paper, 1906 blue PP label registered (2d) postage (3d) <1lb
SG244 DLR chalky paper, 1911 PP label registered (2d) postage (3d) <1lb
SH293 Somerset House, 1912 PP label <3lbs.
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 5d KEVII m.jpg
SH293 Somerset House - placeholder for letter

King George V Registered post was the main use during the Royal Cypher period. The rate was increased to 3d in 1921, making it easier with first step inland or Empire rate covers. The inland rate was lowered in 1922 but 2d stayed as second step. Block Cypher included some new airmail rates, which expanded unto the photogravure period:

SG381 Royal Cypher, 1913 so Somerset House printing, second step (4d) cover to Germany with 1d late fee (Cannon Street hooded circle late fee cancellation unusual
SG381 Royal Cypher (Bistre-brown), 1922 registered (3d) inland letter (2d)
SG381 Royal Cypher, 1921 registered (3d) Empire rate letter (2d)
SG381 Royal Cypher, 1916 PP label <2lbs
SG425 Block Cypher, 1927 inland registered (3d) heavier cover (2d)
SG425 Block Cypher, 1931 airmail to Sudan, new inclusive rate.
SG466 Photogravure, 1936 inland registered (3d) heavier cover (2d)
SG466 Photogravure, 1936 airmail to USA, (reduced from 5½d in 1935)
RP34F 1922 inland usage
SG381 overprinted as Ireland7, used 1922 on OHMS registered cover to England.
SG381 overprinted as Levant 45a, used 1921 from BPO Constantinople to USA (rate?)


King George VI The single GVI stamp was used similarly, but in 1939 the 5d standard airmail letter fee for Europe was introduced. During the war period it was applied only to Gibraltar, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and the Vatican City. The change in rates in 1948 allowed for second step surface post / all-up services to be sent for 5d.

SG469, 1938 registered (3d) FDC at second step (2d) inland postage
SG469, 1943 wartime airmail usage to Switzerland with censor tape
SG469, 1946 postwar airmail usage to Switzerland without censor tape
SG469, 1944 wartime airmail postcard to Sweden; rate was actually 4d.
SG469, 1945 postwar airmail to Sweden; rate had been reinstalled. Victory postmark
Great Britain Single Frankings 5d KGVI f.jpg

Queen Elizabeth II

Airmail postcards and printed papers to zone A were the only real uses for the early Wildings. 1966 foreign surface postcards. First class postage in 1968 changed that.

SG522 Tudor Crown - FDC as placeholder
SG547 St. Edward's Crown, 1958 airmail postcard to zone A Lebanon
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 5d QEII c.jpg
SG578 Multiple Crowns cream paper - placeholder
SG578 Multiple Crowns whiter paper, 1967 postcard to Germany
SG616c phosphor bands, first day of 1st class postage, Weston-s-Mare from me to me
SG616c phosphor bands, 1967 postcard to Austria
SG735 Machin, 1970 postcard to Germany
SG735 Machin - placeholder for inland cover
SG735 Machin, February 1971 1st class inland letter underpaid so 1p postage due, just cachet so still "single franking"

Regionals for this value came quite late so only one variety each:

SG G12 Guernsey
SG I7 Isle of Man
SG NI10 Northern Ireland
SG S11 Scotland
SG W11 Wales

A lot of just phosphor commemorative stamps appeared quickly in the 1969/1970 run-up to D-day:

SG778 Ships QE2 Forces Mail Germany to Germany
SG778 Ships QE2 FDC inland postcard
SG 791 Anniversaries Alcock & Brown inland FDC
SG 791 Anniversaries Alcock & Brown BFPO postcard to GDR
SG796 Architecture Durham Cathedral inland FDC
SG797 Architecture York Minster paquebot to England
SG797 Architecture York Minster postcard to Germany
SG798 Architecture St Giles inland cover
SG799 Architecture Canterbury Cathedral inland cover
SG802 Investiture King's Gate inland cover
SG802 Investiture King's Gate postcard to Austria
SG803 Investiture Eagle Tower inland postcard
SG804 Investiture Queen Eleanor's Gate inland cover
SG808 National Giro postcard to Germany
SG813 Christmas 1969 The Three Shepherds inland cover
SG815 Rural Architecture Fife Harfing inland cover
SG819 Anniversaries Declaration of Arbroath inland postcard
SG819 Anniversaries Declaration of Arbroath postcard to Switzerland
SG824 Literary Anniversaries Mr. Pickwick inland cover
SG825 Literary Anniversaries Mr. & Mrs. Micawber inland cover
SG826 Literary Anniversaries David Copperfield FPO 29 airmail cover to England
SG826 Literary Anniversaries David Copperfield inland postcard
SG827 Literary Anniversaries Oliver postcard to Finland
SG832 Commonwealth Games inland cover
SG835 Philympia inland cover
SG839 Christmas 1970 Mary, Joseph and Christ in the manger inland FDC

The good old Tanner! Originally proposed in 1850, it did not arrive until 1854 and was the fifth denomination available. Inland letters over 2 ounces required 6d postage but mostly used for various destinations abroad, most British colonies included. It was used a lot internally to pay the registration fee in addition to postage stamps, but from 1862 with the reduction of registration to 4d the early 6d stamps could be used. Book post had been set at 6d per lb in 1847 and sample post under 8 ounces in 1863. It survived decimalisation and had a few years use as 2½p but that is a different story.

Queen Victoria The third and last embossed stamp like the other 2 is not easy to find in pristine condition. I must admit that I find cut-to-shape examples almost more appealing as it meant people actually went to the trouble of painstakingly cutting them out! There was a large variety of surface printed stamps from 1856 onwards. First no corner letters then 2 plates with corner letters, without and with hairlines: Plates 5-18 went from lilac through violet and mauve to chestnut and buff, finally to grey, from Emblems to Spray to Crown watermarks. Plates 5 & 6 were in lilac to deep lilac on Emblems paper, then as plate 6 on Spray paper also taking in purple and bright violet. Plates 8-9 then dull violet and mauve: Plates 11 & 12 are the chestnuts from very deep to pale on plate 11 and pale buff on both. Grey appears first on plate 12 then plates 13-17 with coloured corner letters, 17 & 18 with Crown watermark in 1881. The last one was reprinted in lilac with 6d overprinted in 1883 together with the 3d as an unsuccessful attempt to replace the revenue stamps. A green horizontal 6d appeared in 1884 and the Jubilee bi-coloured one 1887. Officials were made but on cover?? The attractive and large Inland Revenue 6d with 5 different watermarked papers was used as a postal fiscal stamp. Stationery:

King Edward VII The EVII stamps appeared along with the ½d, 1d and 2½d in a different design to the Jubilee stamps. Originally on ordinary and then chalky paper from DLR, Somerset House took over printing in 1911. The first issues were in various shades using fluorescent inks, then some on non-fluorescent, followed by both types of ink again before the famous “Dickinson” coated paper issue early 1913 and the chalky paper plums later that year. Before the 1907 rate changes the only usage was really heavier registered Empire letters. After 1907 second step registered foreign letters worked too. Official stamps do exist; covers possibly. Stationery:

King George V Royal Cypher 6d stamps were all printed by Somerset House including the elusive perf 14, brought back in 1920 when the normal perforating machines broke down. The 1921 increase in the registration rate made it more difficult to use the stamp singly. Block Cypher stamps had more use on some foreign airmail routes. There were 4 distinct issues, Somerset House on chalky then ordinary paper, Harrison ordinary paper and in between on chalky paper. The last printing was in 1938, as there was no photogravure or EVIII issue, nor was there a commemorative issue. Stationery:


King George VI There was only 1 definitive under GVI which was not issued until 1939 but 2 commemoratives in 1948/1949. In 1947 the worldwide airmail system had been standardized with 6d paying for letters to all countries in zone A and postcards in zone B. Stationery includes the airmail letters first issued in 1943.

Queen Elizabeth II EII 6d Wildings were issued in all varieties except the graphites and phosphor-graphites. A deliberate change in colour from reddish purple to deep claret took place in 1958. It was also in the Machin series but had little inland use until it became the 2½p second-class rate in February 1971. From 1957-1966 it was the first step foreign rate and the airmail postcard rate to zone A from October 1966. It was also the second-class airmail rate for printed papers to zone B until October 1966 and from then for zone A. Various commemorative series included this value: Regionals: Stationery

The first new denomination in the new century and throughout its life never easy to find.

King Edward VII 7d was issued in May 1910 in Grey Black and with the death of the King 2 days later it quickly became known as a “mourning stamp” which it was not. The reason for the introduction was basically for parcel post to cover the 6-7lbs rate, but also for telegrams. Postal use was very limited which makes it sought after as a single usage item. The second step for foreign letters has been reduced from 2½d to 1½d late 1907 so foreign registered mail only cost 6d. Second step mail combined with express at 3d would be a viable usage as would a fourth step letter under 4 ounces.

SG249 DLR, 1910 letter to Argentina, fourth step 2½d + 3x1½d
SG249 DLR, 1910 letter to Austria, registered (2d), either second (4d) or third (5½d) step so under- or overpaid.
SG249 DLR, 1911 white London PP label <7lbs
SG249 DLR, 1911 blue London PP label <7lbs
SG249 DLR, 1912 parcel tag <7lbs
SG305 SH 1924 late usage registered (3d) to Holland, second step (4d).
SG305 SH 1930 last day usage airmail (2d) to Holland either second (4d) or third (5½d) step so under- or overpaid.
SG305 SH 1913 PP label
SG305 SH undated parcel tag

King George V The value was used for the first definitive series of the new reign but still with limited postal use. It was no longer part of the second or third issues, although second step foreign registered letters fitted the rate from 1923.

SG387, 1914 registered (2d) letter to USA either second (4d) or third (5½d) step so under- or overpaid.
SG387 with control F15, 1915 FPO TX (Canadian) cover to England. 4th step?
SG387 with control H16, 1931 late usage, correctly paid airmail postcard to Tanganyika - Captain Smye!
SG388 bronze green, 1915 APO cover to England from 27th division. 4th step?
SG387, September 1915 PP label <7lbs - rate changed in November
SG387, 1916 PP label <5lbs
SG387, 1916 PP label, registered (2d) & <3lbs. Purple cancellation.
SG387, 1917 London blue PP label <5lbs

King George VI Reintroduced bright green under GVI, initial use was mainly for 4lbs, after 1940 3lbs parcels and airmail postcards to North America and Europe. Post-war foreign registered post (4d) + 3d letter rate was possible from 1949.

SG471, 1939 airmail postcard to Newfoundland - newish rate
SG471, June 1943 airmail postcard to Sweden, but the rate had been reduced to 4d at the end of March.
SG471, 1949 inland registered (4d) large cover to Scotland at second step (3d)
SG471, 1949 registered (4d) cover to Austria (3d)
SG471, 1950 registered (4d) cover to Germany (3d)
SG471, 1939 PP label <5lbs

Queen Elizabeth II Under EII the definitive was issued under the 3 watermarks, also with the change in paper 1962 and later with phosphor bands. It was also part of the pre-decimal Machin range. No commemoratives were issued. All of the EII stamps were only usable as single denominations in less usual circumstances like second class air printed papers! Even the stamps on their own are quite scarce with the 2 earlier watermarks.

SG524 Tudor Crown, FDC as placeholder
SG549 St Edward's Crown, 1958 second class airmail to zone C Australia
SG549 St Edward's Crown, 1958, FPO 359 to England. Rate?
SG580 Multiple Crowns cream paper, 1962 second class airmail to zone C Australia
SG580 Multiple Crowns cream paper, 1967 airmail postcard to zone B USA
SG580 Multiple Crowns whiter paper, December 1966 second class airmail to zone B India - rate had just changed in October
SG580 Multiple Crowns whiter paper, 1967 second class airmail to zone B USA
SG617a phosphor lines, 1967 to Germany. Rate unclear; commercial papers at 7d had been discontinued in 1966. Probably overpaid printed paper rate (6d)
SG617a phosphor lines, 1968 second class airmail to zone B USA
SG737 Machin, 1968 airmail postcard to zone A Abu Dhabi, should have been 6d.
SG737 Machin, 1970 second class airmail to zone B USA
SG737 Machin, March 1971, undated as during the postal strike. The decimal rate was 3p since 15th February and 7d the official pre-decimal exchange rate.

8d, an unusual value. There was never an 8d coin and it was not often used as a stamp value.


Queen Victoria In 1876 the rate to India and Australia was reduced from 1/- or 9d to 8d and there was sufficient demand to make a dedicated stamp viable. Earlier covers with 8d postage were mostly double rate 4d letters abroad or registered (@6d) inland covers of the second weight step.

SG 156 wing-margin to Australia April 1879
SG 156 destination INDIA 1877 (Andrew Lajer)
SG 156 to Mexico with UPU postage - second step September 1879
SG 156 to France second step with 3d late fee 1879
SG 156 to Argentina 1879 (Stanley Gibbons)

King George V The Victorian stamp was only around until 1880 and the value was not reintroduced until 1913 for parcels between 7lbs and 8lbs. The granite paper version was printed in 1917 but due to rate changes in 1918 the stamp was no longer needed and withdrawn again in 1919. Letters with single usage are not known; the only viable possibility would be a registered, express letter between 2 and 3 ounces to an Empire destination before June 1918!

SG 390 used 1918 for a 3lbs parcel (6d) registered with extra 2d.

King George VI After 20 more years the 8d stamp was revived again under GVI, originally again for parcel post but later on could be used in various combinations for foreign registered post and airmail postcards to zone B.

SG 472 May 1948 registered (3d) airmail (5d) to Norway
SG 472 November 1951 Registered (4d) post (4d) to Germany
SG 472 March 1953 airmail postcard to zone B

Queen Elizabeth II It was used in all 3 Wilding watermark versions and with a phosphor version and during the short Machin period in 2 colours just for second class airmail printed papers to zone C! There was only 1 commemorative stamp at 8d, one of my favourites, the Geographical Congress without and with phosphor. The variety “emerald lawn” is no longer catalogued but was available in the South-West and I remember my aunt and I being thrilled to get some at the local post office back then. Still missing as a single franking!

SG 525 Tudor Crown 1953 airmail postcard to zone B
SG 525 Tudor Crown 1953 inland registered letter underpaid ½d
SG 550 Edward Crown 1955 airmail postcard zone B
SG 581 Multiple Crowns (cream paper) 1962 airmail postcard to zone B
SG 617p phosphor printed paper 1967 4-6oz to Switzerland
SG 653 Geographical Congress 1965 (late use) airmail postcard to zone B
SG 653p Ditto phosphor 1964 airmail postcard to zone B
SG 738 Machin Head vermilion introduced 01. July 1968 used December 1968 second class airmail zone C
SG 739 Machin Head turqoise-blue introduced 06. January 1969, used that December second class airmail zone C

The stamp was needed in 1862 to pay the rate to India, Australia and Brazil. It remained a standard value until the Machin era but was often difficult to use on its own.

Queen Victoria The first issue was with small corner letters and it was changed to large white corner letters in 1865, with a change in watermark to Spray in 1867. The stamp was no longer really needed as the rates to India and Australia were increased to 10d, so it was withdrawn. 1883 saw the introduction of parcel post with 4 weight groups; for 3-5 lbs 9d was needed so the horizontal green stamp was issued. Its use on letters was negligible, especially single usage with only 3 covers known! The Jubilee issue is also scarce as single usage. Overprints are known but only 2 Govt. Parcels and on parcel post labels.

SG87 small corner letters used 1862 to India (Olaf)
SG87 small corner letters used 1864 to Denmark
SG98 large white corner letters, watermark emblems, 1867 used to Russia
SG110 large white corner letters, watermark spray, 1873 used to India (Olaf)
SG110 large white corner letters, watermark spray, 1876 used to Australia
SG195 green, 1885 used to Uruguay, presumably second step (8d), overpaid or 1d late fee (Theo Brauers book)
SG195 green, 1885 used to Germany, presumably second step (5d), registered (2d), late fee (2d) (Theo Brauers book)
SG195 green, PP label used 1885 (Samwells)
SG209 Jubilee printed paper rate, magazine 2lbs to USA (Olaf)
SG209 Jubilee, used 1902 from Army Post Office Pretoria to Scotland, registered (2d) 7th step Empire rate
SG209 Jubilee, PP label from 1896 <5lbs.
SG209 Jubilee, PP label from 1902 <7lbs.
SGO63 Green Govt. Parcels PP label (Samwells)
SGO67 Jubilee Govt. Parcels PP label

King Edward VII EVII saw the Jubilee design issued by DLR on ordinary and chalky paper, then by Somerset House. A combination of services is required to allow for single usage. The change in the second and further steps in October 1907 made it "easier" to find items registered at fourth step. From July through September insured items (4d) at the old second weight step (5d) would be feasible - nice to have!

SG250 DLR ordinary paper, 1903 to Austria second step (5d), registered (2d), late fee (2d)
SG250 DLR ordinary paper, 1902 PP label <7lbs.
SG251a DLR chalky paper, 1908 to USA seventh step Empire rate (7d), registered (2d)
SG306 Somerset House, 1913 to France, fourth step (7d),registered (2d)
SG306 Somerset House, 1911 PP label <9lbs.

King George V This was the only value in the Royal Cypher series to have a complete change in colour in 1922, from agate to olive green – the cancellations could not be seen very well on agate. One of the few uses was in connection with the Cairo-Bagdad airmail route on post to Iraq and Western Persia which cost 6d from early December 1921 until the end of November 1923. This was added to the postage of 3d valid until 13 May 1923. Third weight step foreign surface letters with registration were also possible from mid-1921 until 13 May 1923.


SG392 Royal Cypher agate, used 1920 as registered (2d) letter to Sweden (7d fourth step
SG392 Royal Cypher agate, used 1922 airmail (6d) to Persia (3d)
SG392 Royal Cypher agate, used 1920 PP label <7lbs
SG392 Royal Cypher agate, used 1921 PP label <5lbs
SG393a Royal Cypher green, used February 1923, paid airmail second step to Palestine but sent surface as there was no flight (Olaf)
SG393a Royal Cypher green, used 06 June 1923 airmail (6d) to Iraq (3d), but rate lowered to 2½d 3 weeks beforehand.
SG393a Royal Cypher green, used 13 June 1923 airmail (6d) to Iraq (3d), but rate lowered to 2½d 4 weeks beforehand.
SG393a Royal Cypher green, used November 1922 on new-style, smaller PP label <5lbs
SG393a Royal Cypher green with control T22, used 1923 on PP label <5lbs

The opening up of worldwide airmail services allowed various uses of the Block Cypher value and photogravure stamp but no commemoratives were issued.

SG427 Block Cypher, used airmail 1932 to Northern Rhodesia
SG427 Block Cypher, used airmail 1933 to Australia - care is needed as there were 3 different rates to Australia at the time!
SG427 Block Cypher, used airmail 1934 to Bulawayo (Rhodesia so correctly paid); the address South Africa is incorrect and would have required 10d!
SG427 Block Cypher, used airmail 1936 registered 3d) to South Africa (6d new rate since late 1934
SG427 Block Cypher, used 1927 on PP label <5lbs
SG427 Block Cypher, used 1937 on PP label paying 6d for <3lbs and 3d registration
SG447 photogravure used 1938 registered (3d) on large fourth step letter to Denmark (7d)
SG447 photogravure used 1938 airmail to Trinidad (9d)
SG447 photogravure with control X35 used on registered (3d) FPO Palestine second step airmail (6d) to England
SG447 photogravure used 1937 on PP label <6lbs
SG447 photogravure used 1939 as parcel post <6lbs
SG427 overprinted as Morocco209, used on postcard 1936 from BPO Tangier to Germany (rate?)


King George VI For GVI only 1 stamp was issued. With the new foreign surface printed 3d rate a combination with the 6d express fee was possible.

SG473 used as express (6d) letter to Switzerland (3d) before the rate increase that October
SG473 used as Z189 in BPO Tangier 1945 airmail to England.
SG473 overprinted as Eritrea E21, 1951 airmail to England
ES74 used 1962 airmail to Bermuda. Correct zone B airmail postage would have been 1/3d.

Queen Elizabeth II There were only 5 Wilding versions. The major postage rates were for airmail letters to zone A until 1966, airmail postcards to zone C ditto and then to zone B, 3rd step surface letters abroad until 1957 and standard rate from 1966. For inland letters the second step until 1956 was 3d and could be combined with 6d registration or express. For the Machin value the same.

SG526 Tudor Crown used 1954 on zone C airmail postcard to Australia
SG551 St Edward's Crown used 1957 on zone A airmail to Aden (First Flight cover)
SG582 Muliple Crowns cream paper used 1959 on zone C airmail postcard to New Zealand
SG582 Multiple Crowns whiter paper used 1966 on letter to Denmark
SG617c phosphor bands used 1966 on letter to Germany
SG617c phosphor bands used 1968 on letter to Germany from FPO 872; reduced rate stamped but not applied
SG617c phosphor bands used 1968 on paquebot postcard to Czechoslovakia, paid letter rate
Great Britain Single Frankings 9d QEII h.jpg
SG551 overprinted as Morocco334, used 1967 from the UK to USA
SG740 Machin Gum Arabic used 1968 on Philatelic Bureau Handling Charge chit
SG740 Machin 1970 cover to Finland
SG740 Machin 1970 airmail postcard to zone B USA

Regionals:

SGNI4 Northern Ireland 1968 cover to Germany
SGNI4 Northern Ireland 1968 airmail postcard to zone B USA
SGS4 Scotland 1968 cover to Germany
SGS4 Scotland July 1970 airmail postcard to zone B Canada
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 9d QEIIR e.jpg
SGS12 Scotland chalky paper from Sept 1970 - placeholder
SGW4 Wales 1969 cover to Sweden

A number of commemoratives were issued from 1964 on, although 9d had been the airmail rate for zone A since 1952. It only became the standard foreign rate in October 1966 when the zone A rate was increased to 1/-. The airmail postcard rate had been 9d for zone C since 1952 andwas moved to zone B in 1966. An inland use was only really possible with added services.

SG657 Botanical Congress 1964 inland usage (3d) with Recorded Delivery (6d)
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 9d QEIIC b.jpg
SG657p Botanical Congress 1964 phosphor - placeholder
SG677 Battle of Britain 1965 airmail to zone A Egypt
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 9d QEIIC d.jpg
SG677p Battle of Britain 1965 phosphor - placeholder
SG683 ITU 1965, late usage 1966 to Germany
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 9d QEIIC f.jpg
SG683p ITU 1965 phosphor - placeholder
SG715 EFTA 1967, cover to Germany
SG715p EFTA 1967 phosphor, cover to Switzerland
SG715p EFTA 1967 phosphor, airmail postcard to zone B, south Africa
SG715p EFTA 1967 phosphor, paquebot mail from Madeira to England
SG721 Wild Flowers 1967, cover to Germany
SG721p Wild Flowers 1967 phosphor, cover to Germany
SG749 British Paintings "Mares and Foals" 1967 - first commem only issued as phosphor version - cover to Germany
SG749 British Paintings "Mares and Foals" 1967, paquebot cover to New Zealand, airmail sticker but not sent thus.
SG764 Bridges 1968, cover to Germany
SG764 Bridges 1968, large cover to Finland, probably >1ounce
SG764 Bridges 1968, airmail postcard to zone B USA
SG768 Anniversaries, Votes for women 1968, cover to Germany
SG776 Christmas 1968, cover to Germany
SG776var Christmas 1968, turquoise-green colour shift - see base of striped dress on left and right arm of green dress on right - cover to Switzerland
SG779 Ships 1969 Elizabethan Galleon, cover to Switzerland
SG780 Ships 1969 East Indiaman, cover to Germany
SG781 Ships 1969 Cutty Sark, cover to Germany
SG785 Concorde 1969, cover to Germany
SG792 Anniversaries 1969 Europa, cover to Germany
SG800 Architecture 1969 St. Paul's Cathedral, cover to France
SG800 Architecture 1969 St. Paul's Cathedral, airmail postcard to zone B Canada
SG805 Investiture 1969, cover to Switzerland
SG809 Telecommunications 1969, Forces Air Letter to Denmark and retour
SG816 Rural Architecture 1970 Cotswold Limestone, cover to Switzerland
SG820 Anniversaries 1970 Florence Nightingale, cover to Spain
SG836 Philympia '70, cover to France
SG836 Philympia '70, airmail postcard to zone B USA

Stationery and meter mail:

AP13 from 1966
AP14a from 1968
AP14b from 1970
APS11 Christmas 1966
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 9d QEIIS e.jpg
APS12 Christmas 1967 - placeholder
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 9d QEIIS f.jpg
APS13 Christmas 1967 - placeholder
APS14 Christmas 1968
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 9d QEIIS h.jpg
APS15 Christmas 1968 - placeholder
APS16 Investiture 1969
APS17 Christmas 1969
APS18 Christmas 1970
SG768 on Forces Air Letter Germany to England
ASP25 to USA
CSP208 airmail postcard for zone C 1963
1964 meter mail with recorded delivery (6d)
1970 meter mail going abroad

A long serving value! It has changed colours often and was only missing in the reign of EVIII. Only one commemorative made it, in that strange 1961 CEPT issue.

Queen Victoria It started life as one of the three embossed stamps, issued in 1848 to pay the single letter rate to France. Four dies were printed with the numbers discernible (if you are lucky!) on the queen’s neck. Withdrawn in 1855 but reissued in 1862 to pay for letters to India. Only one version (large white letters) was issued in the general surface-printed period a few years later, once the embossed stocks were used up. Next time it appeared in the Jubilee series as a dual colour stamp and basically used for fourth step postage abroad.

SG57 Die 2 1853 to France
SG57 to France underpaid, so presumably over ¼ ounce and should be 1/3d (AB Philea)
SG57 Die 2 (silk threads 20mm apart) 1852 to Switzerland, presumably the 1d stamp needed bottom left got lost.
SG112, 1863 to France
SG112, 1868 to India
SG112, 1868 to New Zealand (Olaf)
SG210, 1897 to Switzerland
SG210a, 1902 to New York
SG210, 1892 to Arabia (Eric McFarlane)
SG210, 1902 PP label <8lbs.
ESP12 cutout used around 1900 on registered (2d) cover to Portugal, presumably 3rd step (7½d) so slightly overpaid (Matthew Healey)
ES17, 1902 to Saxony

King Edward VII The design was not changed during the EVII period, but the stamp appeared on ordinary, then chalk paper printed by DLR, before being taken over by Somerset House. There are some quite striking shades and the stamp was still used for heavier letters abroad (under 2 ounces) until the 1907 rate changes made its use on letters more difficult and especially the SH versions only normally found on PP labels.

SG254 DLR ordinary paper, 1904 to Germany
SG254 DLR ordinary paper,second step (5d)insured for £4 (5d) 1905 to Germany
SG254 DLR ordinary paper, 1908 (late use) PP label <10lbs.
SG254 (M42(3)carmine pink) DLR ordinary paper, 1903 to France
SG255 DLR Chalky paper - deep carmine 01.09.1906 to Sweden. This used to be considered first day usage but the chalk paper is now recorded as being released in August!
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 10d KEVII g.jpg
SG309 Somerset House placeholder

King George V The Royal Cypher value is not often found on its own; after the increase in the registration fee to 3d in 1921, fourt step letters abroad would have cost 10d, express letters (3d) ditto from the beginning of the reign, but the increase to 6d in 1921 made it easier! The increase in airmail in connection with the new European rates from 1930 (4d or 7d) & special services made it more useful in the Block Cypher and photogravure periods.

SG394 Royal Cypher 6th step letter to Belgium 1918
SG394 Royal Cypher 1917 PP label <9lbs.
SG428 Block Cypher 1934 express (6d) airmail(4d) to Germany
SG428 Block Cypher 1935 express (6d) airmail(4d) to Switzerland
SG428 Block Cypher 1935 express (6d) airmail(4d) to Hungary
SG448 Photogravure 1937 express (6d) airmail (4d) to Austria before the all-up switchover in august
SG448 Photogravure 1936 express (6d) airmail (4d) to Switzerland before the all-up switchover in August
SG448 Photogravure 1937, paid as second step airmail to the USA
SG448 Photogravure 1937 registered (3d) airmail (7d second step) to Germany before the all-up switchover in August. 3d Excess endorsement in purple correct if the letter was first step.
SG448 Photogravure 1937, registered (3d) PP label (7d) <7lbs.
SG448 photogravure overprinted as Morocco159 from BPO Tetuan, registered to Switzerland.

King George VI Under GVI the single stamp found little use as before except on airletters from FPO back to England during the War. This was presumably a concessionary forces rate as airmail to Egypt (and Europe) at the time was generally 1/3d.

SG474, 1941 from FPO120 to England
SG474, from FPO32 Egypt to England
SG474, 1941 from Egypt to England
SG474 with Control J41, 1943 from FPO to England
SG474, 1951 express (6d) to Germany (4d)
SG474, 1951 express (6d) to France (4d
SG474, 1951 registered (6d) to Germany (4d
Great Britain Single Frankings 10d KGVI h.jpg
SG474 overprinted as Morocco171, used in GB 1956, second class airmail, second step to USA

Queen Elizabeth II The Wildings were only really used in connection with services and the Machin pre-decimal 10d is among the most difficult stamps of that period with very limited use! The CEPT commemorative could be used for foreign second step surface letters, first step small packets and some second step second class airmail rates and as far as I can see nothing else!

SG527 Tudor Crown, registered (6d) to Switzerland (4d)
SG527 Tudor Crown, express (6d) to Switzerland (4d)
SG527 Tudor Crown, express (6d) to Denmark (4d) and redirected
SG552 St Edward's Crown registered (6d) to Germany (4d)
SG552 St Edward's Crown, 1958 first step small packet surface mail to Holland - unusual!
SG583 Multiple Crown-whiter paper, second step to Germany
SG583 Multiple Crown-whiter paper, 1965 Recorded Delivery (6d), new inland rate (4d)
SG583 Multiple Crown-whiter paper, 1970 airmail postcard to zone C - Australia
SG617d Multiple Crown-whiter paper, phosphor bars, 1969 airmail postcard to zone C - Australia
SG741 Machin 1970 airmail postcard to zone C - Australia
SG628 CEPT second class airmail to Nigeria (zone B) overpaid by 4d.
SG583 Multiple Crown-cream paper overprinted as Morocco335, used 1962 to Switzerland second step.

11d Plum. The shade sends shudders down the backbones of line-engraved collectors. At the end of 1947 this value was launched and could be used for express airmail to Europe until mid-1948. After that its use was very limited and although it made it into the Tudor Crown and St. Edward’s Crown Wildings it was never really necessary there. Most were used in combination with other stamps to make up higher rates but occasional late use individually was possible.


King George VI

SG474a airmail (5d) + express (6d) available until 30.6.1948
SG474a registered (3d) + second step airmail (8d) available to Germany until end of April 1949
SG474a inland parcel post usage 3-4 lbs

Queen Elizabeth II

SG528 Tudor Crown on larger, stable cover used 1954 from North to South Ireland at 5d (over 8 ounces - viable) and registered (6d)
SG553 St Edward's Crown used 1957 from FPO 359 to England, almost certainly overpaid!

One Bob! This was the third value launched and especially for many foreign countries for which the basic rate (in 1847) was 1/-. It has been in extensive use since and is the only non-high value denomination taken over into decimalisation and still around, albeit with little value nowadays!

Queen Victoria

It is interesting to read the original announcement to the public in the “Illustrated London News” of 11 September 1847 that “the foreign stamps will be… of an octagonal shape…”- the intention was obviously that the post office clerks should cut them to shape! Die 2 was issued in 1854.


SG54 Embossed Die I on 1850 cover from Thirsk (795) to Gibraltar, returned with various backstamps
SG55 Embossed Die I on 1852 cover from Bury Lanc (154) to New Jersey

Surface printed stamps were issued soon afterwards with the first – without corner letters – available in 1856. There was only one plate of the small corner letter issue in 1862. Plate 4 with large white letters appeared first on paper watermarked Emblems in 1865 and 2 years later with watermark Spray, then also plates 5-7. First step intercontinental mail was normally 1/- although the USA was reduced to 6d in 1868. For European destinations the rate was usually 6d but the second step was still under ½ ounce as here.

SG73 no corner letters 1858 to USA
SG89 small corner letters 1864 to USA, forwarded
SG101 large white corner letters, plate 4 watermark emblems 1866 from Weston-super-Mare (!) to New York
SG101 large white corner letters, plate 4 watermark emblems April 1867 first step under ½ ounce via West Indian Line to Cuba
SG115 large white corner letters, plate 4 watermark spray (issued July 1867) second step under ½ ounce via France 1869 to Livorno Italy
SG115 large white corner letters, plate 5, 1872 to Venezuela
SG115 large white corner letters, plate 6, 1872 to West Indies
SG115 large white corner letters, plate 6 wing margin 1872 to Brasil
SG115 large white corner letters, plate 7, second step 1873 to Portugal

The change to coloured letters was on plates 8-13. Postage much the same.

SG150 coloured corner letters, plate 8, 1874 to British Honduras
SG150 coloured corner letters, plate 9, 1874 to Mexico
SG150 coloured corner letters, plate 10, 1875 to Argentina
SG150 coloured corner letters, plate 11, 1875 to Portugal
SG150 coloured corner letters, plate 11 wing margin, 1875 to Uruguay
SG150 coloured corner letters, plate 12, first step via Brindisi April 1876 to India The rate was reduced to 8d some 2 months later.
SG150 coloured corner letters, plate 13, 1878 to Venezuela

In 1880 the colour was changed from green to orange brown; plate 13 was reissued, then again, a year later, on paper watermarked Crown, also as plate 14. Individual usage was getting more and more unusual with many countries now in the UPU system. 1884 saw the lilac & green issue, back to green, issued specifically for the 4th step in the new parcel postage system.

SG151 plate 13 watermark Spray, 25 May 1881 (1 day after issue of the Crown watermark stamp) to South Africa
SG163 plate 13 watermark Crown 1884 to Rev. Sleigh in the Loyalty Islands! (Olaf)
SG163 plate 14 watermark Crown 1882 to Rev. Sleigh in the Loyalty Islands! (Olaf)
SG163 plate 14 watermark Crown 1882 to Australia
SG196 "lilac & green", 1886 to Queensland
SG196 "lilac & green", 1885 to New Zealand (Olaf)
SG196 "lilac & green",October 1886 parcel post label in the second period, now 7th step but still the same weight limit of 7lbs.

1887 the green Jubilee issue. As the halfpenny had to be changed to green, the shilling also had to be changed and in 1900 appeared bi coloured as the scarce green & carmine. Registered (2d) foreign letters under 2 ounces (4x 2½d) could now be sent for 1/-.

SG211 third step 1-1¼ ounces UPU rate 1889 to Brazil
SG211 registered 1899 letter to France (Devlan Kruck)
SG211 registered 1891 letter to New York (Olaf)
SG211 inland parcel post label
SG211 London (blue) parcel post label
SG214 registered 1900 letter to Switzerland

Various official overprints and stationery are known:

SGO68 Government Parcels parcel post label
SGO68 Government Parcels parcel post label (Gibbons)
SG072a Government Parcels (inverted overprint) part parcel label (Karl Louis in GBJ)
ES27 embossed stamped to order parcel post label

King Edward VII The EVII issues followed the usual pattern for the stamps issued in the second rush. Design and colour matched the Jubilees. DLR printed on ordinary then on chalky paper, then Somerset House took over in 1911. Post 1907 the foreign rates made the use of this value less usual on its own. Even inland parcel post had a top rate of 11d from 1906, but a 10d rate with 2d registration should be around for a SH stamp!

SG257 DLR ordinary paper, 1904 registered to Paris
SG257 DLR ordinary paper, 1904 registered to New York
SG257 DLR ordinary paper, 1904 parcel post label <11lbs.
SG257a DLR chalky paper, 1906 registered to Germany
SG257a DLR chalky paper, 1906 parcel post label
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 1s KEVII f.jpg
SG312 Somerset House placeholder


King George V The Royal Cypher period was not very fruitful for this issue, only heavy letters or parcels (from November 1915) being able to meet the rates. The items shown here are often uncertain candidates, but as they are all commercial with no indication of philatelic use, included until better ones found!

SG395 November 1913 telephone receipt as fiscal use
SG395 November 1913 telephone receipt as fiscal use - the stamp
SG395 1919 small cover from French FPO to USA but the rate is unclear
SG395 1923 large registered (3d) cover to Australia, presumably paying the 8th Empire step and overpaid ½d.
SG395 PP label from June 1915 sent from the Western Front FPO 151, rate unclear
SG395 PP label from 30. October 1915 (= 1 day before the 1/- rate was reintroduced) with unusual "postage refunded" stamp, not usually seen until the WWII period.
SG395 PP label November 1918 London version
SG395 PP label April 1921
SG395 PP label with U22 Contro, late usage in 1942

During the end of the Block Cypher period the airmail fees to parts of Africa allowed more use of the stamps, also into the photogravure era. They remain elusive.

SG429 January 1932 to South Africa on the first direct airmail flight to Cape Town
SG429 on a 1930 PP label
SG429 overprinted as Morocco 211 sent 1937 from BPO Casablanca to Switzerland
SG449 used 1937 to South Africa. The airmail rate had been reduced to 6d late 1934 so second step a few months before it was reduced further to 1½d all up.
SG449 used late 1936 unusually to the USA, registered (3d) either over- or underpaid as the single step was 5d.
SG449 with Control Y36 on an overpaid inland registered cover.
SG449 overprinted as Morocco 72 used in the UK 1951 to India (airmail zone B). A lot of overprinted stamps were used legally around 1950 in the UK and form part of a GB collection!
SG449 overprinted as Morocco 72 sent 1937 from BPO Tangier to London
SG449 on a typical PP label

King George VI Airmail to zone B cost 1/- from the start of the new rates in 1947. The GVI definitive had been launched in 1939 and 2 commemoratives were introduced in 1948 and 1949.

SG475 airmail to USA 1948
SG475 paquebot & airmail postcard 1949 to Argentine (zone B) paid at the letter rather than postcard rate
SG475 used from BPO Tangier as Z191 1944 to Scotland
SG475 overprinted EAF as S8 used 1951 in the UK correctly to the USA
SG475 overprinted MEF as M18 used 1952 in the UK shortly after the rate hike in May to the USA so postage due applied.
SG498 the first 1/- commemorative celebrating the 1948 Olympic Games in London, airmail to USA
SG498 the first 1/- commemorative celebrating the 1948 Olympic Games in London, registered (3d)to Germany, second step airmail was still different to Germany and should have been 8d, so overpaid 1d
SG502 the second 1/- commemorative celebrating the UPU (quite fitting for this value), airmail FDC to the USA
SG502 the second 1/- commemorative celebrating the UPU, registered 1949 (4d) to Switzerland at the third step so 1d overpaid.

Queen Elizabeth II The shilling was always in the main Wilding series, but individual use was hardly possible until February 1961 when it could supplement the newly introduced Recorded Delivery scheme (6d) with letters over 2 ounces or October 1966 when it became the standard airmail letter rate for zone A. In July 1971 the airmail postcard rate to zone C and the surface rate went to 5p, so for 8 months 1/- stamps like the Machin could still be used here during the transitional period.


SG521 Tudor Crown salvaged mail, second step printed paper, second class airmail to zone B 1954
SG521 Tudor Crown second step airmail to Casablanca in zone A 1955 but at the old rate so charged postage due
SG554 St Edward's Crown letter to Norway, overpaid, should have been 6d or 10d if second step
SG584 Multiple Crown cream paper, second class airmail to USA 1962 at second step
SG584 Multiple Crown cream paper, recorded delivery 1961 (6d) third step (6d) under 4 ounces
SG584 Multiple Crown whiter paper, FPO Cyprus to GDR as zone A airmail
SG617e phosphor lines - there was only one version - zone A airmail to Cyprus 1968
Great Britain Single Frankings 1s QEII h.jpg
SG742 Machin zone A airmail to Saudi Arabia 1967
SG742Ea Machin new shade zone A airmail to Israel 1970
SG742Ea Machin new shade surface, foreign rate 1971 (5p) to Sweden during transitional period

The first Commemorative, 1965 for Lister was the only one released on ordinary and phosphor paper but had little use as a single value. The other 9 were ok for zone A airmail but even so not easy to find.

SG668 Lister 1965 recorded delivery (6d) third step (6d)
File:Great Britain Single Frankings 1s QEII1 b.jpg
SG669p Lister phosphor placeholder
SG753 Discovery of Penicillin 1967 to Switzerland at zone A airmail rate rather than normal 9d
SG769 Sopwith Camel anniversary zone A airmail to Ethiopia
SG772 Paintings - Pinkie - airmail FDC to zone A Bahrain
SG782 SS Great Britain "en route to Antarctica"
SG783 RMS Mauretania zone A airmail to Ethiopia
SG793 ILO zone A airmail to Bahrain